Renato Foschi, PhD Sapienza Università di Roma Facoltà di Medicina e Psicologia

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Confronto tra la valutazione tramite test del Q.I. e la valutazione delle competenze tramite i quesiti INVALSI. Renato Foschi, PhD Sapienza Università di Roma Facoltà di Medicina e Psicologia. In particolare le prove INVALSI servirebbero:. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Renato Foschi, PhD Sapienza Università di Roma Facoltà di Medicina e Psicologia

  • Confronto tra la valutazione tramite test del Q.I. e la valutazione delle competenze tramite i quesiti INVALSI

    Renato Foschi, PhDSapienza Universit di RomaFacolt di Medicina e Psicologia

  • In particolare le prove INVALSI servirebbero: A ciascuno studente perch un diritto conoscere il livello di competenze raggiunto; alle singole istituzioni scolastiche per lanalisi della situazione al fine di mettere a punto eventuali strategie di miglioramento; al Ministero dellIstruzione - per operare investimenti e scelte politiche.

  • Test Completamento di Figure

  • Test Completamento di Figure

  • Binet e il QI

  • Esempi di item di Raven

  • Esempi di item di Raven

  • Correlazioni fra Scale di intelligenza

    WISC-R-totalWISC-R-verbalWISC-R-perf.WISC-R-total-WISC-R-verbal.90-WISC-R-perf..90.60-Raven-SPM.70.50.70

  • Esempio Item INVALSI Italiano

  • Esempio Item INVALSI Matematica

  • Rindermann, H. (2007), Theg-factor of international cognitive ability comparisons: the homogeneity of results in PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS and IQ-tests across nations. Eur. J. Pers., 21:667706.

    AbstractInternational cognitive ability and achievement comparisons stem from different research traditions. But analyses at the interindividual data level show that they share a common positive manifold. Correlations of national ability means are even higher to very high (within student assessment studies,r=.60.98; between different student assessment studies [PISA-sum with TIMSS-sum]r=.82.83; student assessment sum with intelligence tests,r=.85.86). Results of factor analyses indicate a strongg-factor of differences between nations (variance explained by the first unrotated factor: 9495%). Causes of the high correlations are seen in the similarities of tests within studies, in the similarities of the cognitive demands for tasks from different tests, and in the common developmental factors at the individual and national levels including known environmental and unknown genetic influences.

  • Rindermann, H. (2007), Theg-factor of international cognitive ability comparisons: the homogeneity of results in PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS and IQ-tests across nations. Eur. J. Pers., 21:667706.

  • Rindermann, H. (2007), Theg-factor of international cognitive ability comparisons: the homogeneity of results in PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS and IQ-tests across nations. Eur. J. Pers., 21:667706.

    items of different scales in student assessment studies are similarcognitive processes necessary for solving similar and different cognitive ability tasks are similarcauses for high abilities are similar and nested in reciprocal causation at the individual levelcauses for high abilities are similar at the macro-social levelGenetic components

  • IQ and the Wealth of Nations by Richard Lynn & Tatu Vanhanen

  • Richard Lynn, In Italy, northsouth differences in IQ predict differences in income, education, infant mortality, stature, and literacy, Intelligence 38 (2010) 93100.AbstractRegional differences in IQ are presented for 12 regions of Italy showing that IQs are highest in the north and lowest in the south. Regional IQs obtained in 2006 are highly correlated with average incomes at r= 0.937, and with stature, infant mortality, literacy and education. The lower IQ in southern Italy may be attributable to genetic admixture with populations from the Near East and North Africa.

  • Criticisms advanced by Felice and Giugliano (2011) of the thesis that IQs in Italy are higher in the north than in the south are answered and new data confirming the thesis are given from the PISA 2009 study and for math and reading abilities in the recent INVALSI study. New genetic data are given showing higher frequency of blond hair the haplogroup xR1 allele and the haplogroup E1b1b allele as markers for greater percentage northern and central European ancestry in northern Italian regions.R. Lynn, Intelligence IQs in Italy are higher in the north: A reply to Felice and GiuglianoIntelligence, 40 (2012), pp. 255259

  • Cornoldi, Giofr, Martini, Problems in deriving Italian regional differences in intelligence from 2009 PISA data, Intelligence, Volume 41, Issue 1, JanuaryFebruary 2013, Pages 2533AbstractRecent results of international assessment programs (e.g., PISA) have shown a large difference in high school students' performance between northern and southern Italy. On this basis, it has been argued that the discrepancy reflects differences in average intelligence of the inhabitants of regions and is associated with genetic factors (Lynn, 2010a and Lynn, 2012). This paper provides evidence in contrast to this conclusion by arguing that the use of PISA data to make inferences about regional differences in intelligence is questionable, and in any case, both PISA and other recent surveys on achievement of North and South Italy students offer some results that do not support Lynn's conclusions. In particular, a 20062009 PISA data comparison shows a relevant decrease in the NorthSouth difference in only three years, particularly evident in the case of a single region (Apulia). Other large surveys (including INVALSI-2011) offer different results; age differences suggest that schooling could have an important role.

  • Cornoldi, Giofr, Martini, Problems in deriving Italian regional differences in intelligence from 2009 PISA data, Intelligence, Volume 41, Issue 1, JanuaryFebruary 2013, Pages 2533Even though cognitive ability and academic achievement are distinct constructs and specific cognitive factors are important to explain specific aspects of achievementnot only the general factor (Kaufman, Reynolds, Liu, Kaufman, & McGrew, 2012)it is unquestionable that measures of reading comprehension and mathematical achievement offer good approximations of the individual's intelligence levels Therefore, using achievement measures to derive IQ estimations is appropriate.

  • Cornoldi, Giofr, Martini, Problems in deriving Italian regional differences in intelligence from 2009 PISA data, Intelligence, Volume 41, Issue 1, JanuaryFebruary 2013, Pages 2533it is risky to use PISA data to make inferences about the population's intelligence; ii) PISA 2009 data, if deeply analyzed and compared with the PISA 2006 data, offers a different picture than that derived by an overall NorthSouth comparison; and iii) the outcomes from different sources of information about the achievement of Italian children offer different descriptions of the competencies of northern and southern Italy students.

  • Cornoldi, Giofr, Martini, Problems in deriving Italian regional differences in intelligence from 2009 PISA data, Intelligence, Volume 41, Issue 1, JanuaryFebruary 2013, Pages 2533The pattern of results is robust across different observations. All the effects are significant, and the effect size is high (Cohen, 1988). In fact, 2 2 ANOVAs (year [PISA 2006 and PISA 2009] geographical area [North, South]) on the scores showed a significant interaction between year and geographical area, with large effect sizes and important decreases in the differences in score, either for the overall score, p2 = .45 (Fig. 1), or for the specific scores in reading, p2 = .54, mathematics, p2 = .44, and science, p2 = .37. The decreases in the score differences between North and South, computed on the basis of the PISA population standard deviations (100), were of .22, .18, .21, and .19 SDs respectively for the overall score, reading, mathematics and science. Furthermore, Bonferroni's post-hoc comparisons showed for the northern Italy regions no significant difference between PISA 2006 and PISA 2009 in the four scores; on the contrary, for the southern Italy regions, there was a substantial improvement in all the four scores of .27, .21, .30, and .21 SDs respectively (p ranging between .036 for Science and .003 for Mathematics).

  • Cornoldi, Giofr, Martini, Problems in deriving Italian regional differences in intelligence from 2009 PISA data, Intelligence, Volume 41, Issue 1, JanuaryFebruary 2013, Pages 2533The case of Apulia.Apulia is an example of how contextual factors may dramatically affect PISA outcomes. In the Apulia region, there was an enormous growth in the performance in the last PISA survey (Table4). The overall change from PISA 2006 to PISA 2009 for the Apulia is impressive (about 48 points), and if the PISA can be used as a measure of intelligence, it is equivalent to about 7 IQ points. Moreover, Apulia's performance is now more similar to the northern Italy regions than to the southern ones

    In 2006, Lucrezia Stellacci was nominated as the new Director for the Regional School System (Ufficio Scolastico Regionale) of Apulia and decided to use the European funds to improve not only the regional school system (quality of teaching, buildings, labs) but also to expand assessment practices in Apulia schools and develop test taking skills in its students (Rubinacci, 2011). The dramatic improvement in the achievement of Apulia students seems therefore to be due to improvements both in the school system and in the test taking skills (Martini, 2011).

  • Cornoldi, Giofr, Martini, Problems in deriving Italian regional differences in intelligence from 2009 PISA data, Intelligence, Volume 41, Issue 1, JanuaryFebruary 2013, Pages 2533Therefore, due to the large sample size, it is possible that a significant effect is detected even if it is very small and does not reflect large differences between groups (Cohen, 1988). From Table 5, we can see that if we compare the mean scores of northern and southern Italy regions, NorthSouth differences are relatively small and lower than in the PISA scores, ranging between 0.02 and 0.32 (M = 0.15). INVALSI 2011

  • Cornoldi, Giofr, Martini, Problems in deriving Italian regional differences in intelligence from 2009 PISA data, Intelligence, Volume 41, Issue 1, JanuaryFebruary 2013, Pages 2533The PISA program has offered an impressive amount of data that can be used to respond to crucial questions about human abilities. Lynn, 2010aandLynn, 2012 focus on the comparison between North and South Italy had the advantages of comparing two populations that were administered exactly the same tasks in the same language and with the same school legislation. The two populations are apparently different not only on a historical but also on a biological basis as South Italy is close to African communities and immigrations and North Italy has close exchanges with Central Europe. With the present paper we did not intend to question the general issue of heritability of intelligence, as, in our view, the evidence supporting the genetic bases of intelligence is robust and unquestionable, but we wanted to put in evidence the fact that measures related with intelligence may be affected by a series of other factors. .We are aware that the nature versus nurture controversy in intelligence cannot find a complete solution because the arguments in favor of a position can be reversed and used in favor of the opposite position, and the present evidence is not decisive against Lynn's theory.

  • Ian Hacking (2005)

    Neuf impratifs des sciences qui classifient les gens : I. Dfinir. II. Compter et Corrler. III. Transformer des qualits en quantits. (Mesurez !) IV. Normalisation. V. Mdicalisation clinique. VI. Biologisation. VII. Rendre gntique. VIII. Adapter aux buts dadministration. IX. Rappropriation des catgories par les gens qui sont classifies.