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Transcript of Debian GNU/Linux - KLDP · 2005. 12. 15. · 3.6.2.1 ide ôŁ0x• ˝˝ ‚0 . . . . . . . . . . ....

  • Debian GNU/Linux

    December 16, 2005

  • � c© 2004, 2005 pDH $X �\ø¨ �� õÀ

    t $� �¸è´Èä; t 8�| GNU General Public LicenseÐ �tÄ �Ð XpXì¬0ìXp ��` � µÈä. |t ¤Ð �t� ]E| 8pXÜ0 �Èä.

  • Abstract

    t 8� Intel x86(�i386�)D¤M© Debian GNU/Linux 3.1ܤ\(TÜ �sarge�)D $XX �(� ðì µÈä. È\´ pDH ܤ\D Ìä´ � )Ð �\ �ô� ä´ à T Î@ �ô� ä´ äx ÌäD H´iÈä.

    i386© $X H´�X ´©@ pX ¨P Åpt¸�´ ÁÜtÀÌ, sarge õÝ ´¬¤� (tÄÐ|Ä | ´©D À½Xp H´�X l1D ¬p�` ÄÈä. t $�X \à �@ x07X debian-installer HtÀ Ð µÈä. t HtÀÐ äx ìì ¸´X í�Ä T D Èä.

    http://www.debian.org/devel/debian-installer/

  • i386© Debian GNU/Linux 3.1$XX0

    °¬ ùàt pDHD ÜÄtô t ä° 0Xp pDHX GNU/Linux 0ìøt |Xä D L t|à UàiÈä. Debian GNU/[email protected] 8ÁÐ� \àÈ �¸è´| hØ �8ä� tp øD D½X µiÜ�� Èä. °¬ Ää\ X iôä T Uä\ °ü| �8ä �t|à ÿµÈä.

    °¬ �X ¬t t $�| }À Jà pDHD $XX0| Ð\äà ttXp pDH $X�\ø¨@ t| �¥XÄ] $Ä�ȵÈä. �¬ �´ $X �tÜ| }D Ü�t Æät,0ø $X�(| H´Xp T 8\  =t »�ÈD L| �\ $X X°, 8�| }0| iÈä. $X X°, 8� ]AÐ� >D � µÈä.

    °¬ ùàt t $�X �D }D Ü�D �Àà T �UXà T 1õ�x $X ½ØD �È� äà lÝiÈä.

    3

  • Contents

    1 pDHÐ $à D X�iÈä. 91.1 pDHt? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.2 GNU/¬�¤? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.3 Debian GNU/Linux? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.4 pDH GNU/Hurd? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.5 pDH lX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.6 t 8�X \à �D » . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.7 t 8�X l1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.8 8�Ð ÄÀD üä @ ¸�àÀ X�iÈä. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.9 �ü �¸è´ |t ¤Ð �Xì . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    2 ܤ\ l¬m 152.1 ÀÐX XÜè´ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    2.1.1 ÀÐX D¤MÐ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.1.2 CPU, Tx ôÜ, D�$ ÀÐ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    2.1.2.1 CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162.1.2.2 % ¤ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    2.1.3 ø= tÜ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162.1.4 x¸ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.1.5 ä� �\8� . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    2.2 $X ø�´ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.2.1 �\< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.2.2 CD-ROM/DVD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.2.3 XÜ�¤l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.2.4 USB T¨¬ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.2.5 $¸Ìl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.2.6 ɤ Äô [email protected] GNU ܤ\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.2.7 ÀÐX �¥ ¥X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    2.3 üÀ ¥X � 0À XÜè´ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.4 GNU/¬�¤| �\ XÜè´ lX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    2.4.1 Å��tp ÐÄ� XÜè´ 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233.3.3 XÜè´ 8X1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233.3.4 $¸Ìl $� . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    3.4 \ XÜè´ l¬m Þ0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243.5 @ð � ܤ\Ð� ø¬ �ðXX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    3.5.1 DOS WindowsÐ� �ðXX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263.5.1.1 DOS Win-32 OS/2Ð� Ü` L pt0 äÆt äÜ �ðXX0 263.5.1.2 DOS© �ðXX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

    3.6 $XX0 �Ð XÜè´ � ´� ´� $� . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273.6.1 BIOS $� Tt ä´�0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273.6.2 � ¥X Ý . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    5

  • 3.6.2.1 IDE ôè0X � �� �¸0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283.6.2.2 SCSI ôè0Ð� � �� �¸0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    3.6.3 0À BIOS $� . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.6.3.1 CD-ROM $� . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.6.3.2 [email protected] Expanded Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.6.3.3 Virus Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.6.3.4 Shadow RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.6.3.5 Memory Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.6.3.6 Advanced Power Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

    3.6.4 üXt| ` XÜè´ t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303.6.4.1 Turbo ¤�X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303.6.4.2 Cyrix CPU � �\< �¤l $X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303.6.4.3 üÀ ¥X XÜè´ $� . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303.6.4.4 USB BIOS ÀÐ � ¤ôÜ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303.6.4.5 64 MB RAM tÁ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

    4 ܤ\ $X ø�´ »0 334.1 õÝ Debian GNU/Linux CD-ROM 8¸ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334.2 pDH øìÐ� �| ´$�0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    4.2.1 $X tøÀ| >D �X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334.3 �¤l tøÀÐ� �\< Ìä0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

    4.3.1 ¬�¤ UNIX ܤ\Ð� �¤l tøÀ ð0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344.3.2 DOS, Windows, OS/2Ð� �¤l tøÀ ð0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

    4.4 USB T¨¬ ¤ñ �Ð D\ �| �DX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344.4.1 �| õ¬X0 � l´ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354.4.2 �| õ¬X0 � ð\ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    4.4.2.1 Intel x86Ð� USB ¤ñ �ðXX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354.4.2.2 ISo tøÀ �X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364.4.2.3 USB ¤ñ �X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

    4.5 XÜ �¤l �Ð D\ �| �DX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374.5.1 LILO [email protected] GRUBD t©\ XÜ �¤l $X �\ø¨ � . . . . . . . . . . . 37

    4.6 TFTP $¸Ìl �Ð D\ �| �DX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374.6.1 BOOTP � �DX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374.6.2 DHCP � $�X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

    4.6.2.1 DHCP $�Ð� PXE �X Ìä0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394.6.3 TFTP Server ¬©X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394.6.4 TFTP tøÀ| �ù\ �XÐ .00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

    4.7 Ù $X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404.7.1 pDH $X �\ø¨D t©\ Ù $X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

    5 $X ܤ\ �X0 435.1 Intel x86Ð� $X �\ø¨ �X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

    5.1.1 CD-ROMÐ� �X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435.1.2 LILO [email protected] GRUBD ¬©t ¬�¤ �X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435.1.3 USB T¨¬ ¤ñÐ� �X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445.1.4 �\

  • 5.3.4 ä� Ü T8À t�X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495.3.5 ø ôà . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495.3.6 $X ôà � . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

    6 pDH $X �\ø¨ ¬©X0 516.1 $X �\ø¨t ÙX )Ý . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516.2 l1 � . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526.3 � l1 ¬©X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

    6.3.1 pDH $X �\ø¨ � XÜè´ $� �DX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536.3.1.1 ¬© �¥ T¨¬ ¬ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536.3.1.2 ¸´ Ý . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546.3.1.3 m� Ý . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546.3.1.4 ¤ôÜ ÝX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546.3.1.5 pDH $X �\ø¨ ISO tøÀ >0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546.3.1.6 $¸Ìl $�X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

    6.3.2 �ðXX0 � È´¸ �X Ý . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556.3.2.1 �¤l �ðXX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556.3.2.2 |¬ üh �¬ (LVM) $�X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576.3.2.3 @ð�¤l ¥X $�X0 (�¸è´ RAID) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

    6.3.3  t¤ ܤ\ $XX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596.3.3.1  t¤ ܤ\ $X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

    6.3.4 ܤ\D � �¥X Ìä0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596.3.4.1 äx ´� ´� >0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596.3.4.2 XÜ �¤lÐ GRUB ¸\T $X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596.3.4.3 XÜ �¤lÐ LILO ¸\T $X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606.3.4.4 ¸\T Æt Ä . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

    6.3.5 « èÄ ÈX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606.3.5.1 $X ÈX0 � äÜ ÜX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

    6.3.6 0À . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616.3.6.1 $X \ø �¥ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616.3.6.2 X ¬©X0 � \ø ô0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616.3.6.3 $¸Ìl| µt $X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616.3.6.4 debian-installer HÐ� base-config äX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

    7 È\´ pDH ܤ\

  • 8.5 È ä� ô�|X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718.5.1 ä� tøÀ �¬ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

    A $X ) 73A.1 ¬� �D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73A.2 $X�¬ ÜX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

    A.2.1 CDROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73A.2.2 �\< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74A.2.3 USB T¨¬ ¤ñ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74A.2.4 $¸Ìl � . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74A.2.5 XÜ �¤l � . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

    A.3 $X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75A.4 $XÐ �\ °ü| ô´ü8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75A.5 ÈÀÉ.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

    B pDHX XÜ�¤l �ðX 77B.1 �ðXD � L �ðXX l0 ñ à$` � . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77B.2 � ¬ lp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77B.3 ¥X �ðX lp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78B.4 ¬�¤Ð�X ��t¤ t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79B.5 pDHX �ðX© �\ø¨ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

    B.5.1 Intel x86Ð� �ðXX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

    C ìì�À ´©ä 83C.1 ø¬ $� �| �� . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83C.2 ¬�¤ ¥X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

    C.2.1 È°¤ $�X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90C.3 ÅÈä D\ �¤l õ� . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91C.4 ɤ/¬�¤ ܤ\Ð� Debian GNU/Linux $XX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

    C.4.1 ÜX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92C.4.2 debootstrap $X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92C.4.3 debootstrap ä . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93C.4.4  t¤ ܤ\ $� . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

    C.4.4.1 �ðX È´¸X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93C.4.4.2 ¤ôÜ $� . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94C.4.4.3 $¸Ìl $�X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94C.4.4.4 Ü��, ¬©, APT $�X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95C.4.4.5 \�| $�X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

    C.4.5 ä� $X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96C.4.6 ¸\T $�X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

    C.5 Ñ, |x IP| (PLIP) t©t Debian GNU/Linux $XX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97C.5.1 l ¬m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97C.5.2 ¤ $�X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97C.5.3 À $X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

    D �¬ 99D.1 8� �ô . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99D.2 t 8�Ð 0ìX0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99D.3 � 0ä . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99D.4 Á\ \Ü . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

    E GNU General Public License 101E.1 Preamble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101E.2 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102E.3 How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

    8

  • Chapter 1

    pDHÐ $à D X�iÈä.

    t ¥Ð� pDH �\�¸@ Debian GNU/LinuxÐ �Xì �µ $X$à iÈä. pDH �\�¸X í¬@ Debian GNU/Linux 0ì�Ð �Xì tø Là ä@ äL ¥

  • • Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) ¬�¤ �| ܤ\X l1D \�TX �\�¸Èä. FHS ��\ ¸ìø� ìì�À GNU/¬�¤ 0ì�д» $X� ÀÐ �t àü` D Æt �¸è´ �� �\ø¨ $ÄÐÌ �P` �Ä] X0 �\ �\�¸Èä.

    • pDH lÈ´ pDH ´ �\�¸\ ´°t¬©ät ¬©` Ì\ pDHD ÌÜ �\�¸Èä.

    pDHÐ �\ ôä |��x �ô pDH FAQ | 8àX0�Èä.

    1.2 GNU/¬�¤?

    ¬�¤ ´� ´�Èä. ìì �\ø¨äX ¨L

  • 1.3 Debian GNU/Linux?

    pDHX  Y � )`ü GNU Äl, ¬�¤ ä�, ø¬à 0À �\ �¸è´äX [email protected] GNU/Linuxt| ¬ Ź\ 0ì�D �1iÈä. t 0ì�@ �Î@ �¸è´ ¸ìø\ l1)Èä. 0ì�X � ¸ìø ä�|, ¤l½¸, 8�, $� �ô� ä´

  • [email protected] $X\ ¤Ð } Åø�tÜ ` � µÈä. |è $X ü�D È\ ܤ\@ D` L ¸�àÀ Åø�tÜ` � µÈä.

    1.6 t 8�X \à �D »

    t 8� �Ü\ ��)Èä. Debian GNU/Linux ܤ\X 3.1 ´¬¤Ð �\ \à �ôÐ �t�pDH 3.1 tÀ | UxX0 �Èä. t $X8�X\à�@õÝpDH$XH´�tÀ Dµt�Ä l` � µÈä.

    1.7 t 8�X l1

    t 8� pDHD L ¬©X äD �\ $�Èä. t 8� �¥\\ } ¬t �8ÀÝD �À JXäà Ý�Xà ðìLµÈä. XÀÌ ôè0Ð ¥)� XÜè´� ÙX )Ð�t� ô¸�x tt| Xà äà ��µÈä.

    �8�x ¬©äÄ t 8�Ð� ìì �À eø\´ �ô| >D � µÈä. �| ät \ $Xl0, pDH $X ܤ\t ÀÐX XÜè´ ñü �@ ´©t µÈä. �8�x ¬© t 8�| L0 }À Jà D\ Ì }´ �0| iÈä.

    t ät¼@ $X ü�X L0 ]LÀ, |(X ü�X ��\ �´ µÈä. ä[email protected] DebianGNU/LinuxD $XX ü�

  • 1.9 �ü �¸è´ |t ¤Ð �Xì

    ììä@ �X Á© �¸è´Ð 0|$ |t ¤| ´ �Ä|Ä }´ ø �t D Èä. øð |t ¤ä@ ôµ XX ôè0Ð \ t

  • Chapter 2

    ܤ\ l¬m

    ì0Ð pDHD L $X` L ´¤ XÜè´� D\ÀÐ �\ �ô� ä´ µÈä. � GNU� ¬�¤Ð� ÀÐX XÜè´Ð �\ T 8\ �ô� ä´ ùtÀ üÄ ä´ µÈä.

    2.1 ÀÐX XÜè´

    ¬�¤ ä�ü GNU 4Kt D\ xÐ pDHÐ ¹Ä D\ XÜè´ 0\ ƵÈä. øìÀ\ ¬�¤ ä�, libc, gcc ñt ì��´ D¤MÐ �«ü �Ð� pDH ì�t ½°|t pDHD Ì´ � µÈä. pDHÐ� L¤¸\ Intel x86 D¤MРܤ\Ð �\ 8\ �ô tÀÐ ì� tÀ| 8àXíÜ$.

    ì0� Intel x86 D¤MÐÐ� ÀÐX ìì�À XÜè´äD ¨P $XÀ Jà, |��x �ô@ � �ô� ä´ ù¬t¸| h XµÈä.

    2.1.1 ÀÐX D¤MÐ

    pDH 3.1 �@ 11�X D¤MÐ| ÀÐXà � D¤MÐÄ\ �flavors�| L$Ä �À ÀD ÀÐiÈä.

    D¤MÐ pDH m �� D¤MÐ À

    xT x86 0� i386vanilla

    speakup

    linux26

    ¨ \| 680x0 m68k

    Atari atari

    Amiga amiga

    68k ä¨ Ü mac

    VMEbvme6000

    mvme147

    mvme16x

    DEC Alpha alpha

    Sun SPARC sparcsun4cdm

    sun4u

    ARM � StrongARM arm

    netwinder

    riscpc

    shark

    lart

    15

    http://www.debian.org/ports/i386/

  • D¤MÐ pDH m �� D¤MÐ À

    IBM/¨ \| PowerPC powerpc

    CHRP chrp

    PowerMac pmac

    PReP prep

    APUS apus

    HP PA-RISC hppaPA-RISC 1.1 32

    PA-RISC 2.0 64

    xT ia64 0� ia64

    MIPS (big endian) mipsSGI Indy/Indigo 2

    r4k-ip22

    r5k-ip22

    Broadcom BCM91250A (SWARM) sb1-swarm-bn

    MIPS (little endian) mipsel

    Cobalt cobalt

    DECstationr4k-kn04

    r3k-kn02

    Broadcom BCM91250A (SWARM) sb1-swarm-bn

    IBM S/390 s390VM-reader � DASD� IPL generic

    Lt�� IPL tape

    t 8� Intel x86 D¤MÐÐ�X $XÐ �t äèà µÈä. pDHt ÀÐX äx D¤MÐÐ �\ �ô| >à ät pDH ì¸ tÀ| ôíÜ$.

    2.1.2 CPU, Tx ôÜ, D�$ ÀÐ

    ÀÐX üÀ¥XÐ �\ D�\ �ô Linux Hardware Compatibility HOWTO Ð ä´ µÈä. ì0� �µ�x 0ø ¬mÌ äùÈä.

    2.1.2.1 CPU

    pX ¨à x86 8X �\8�| ÀÐiÈä. ì0Ð [email protected] VIA (��X Cyrix) �\8�Ä ìh)Èä. � Athlon XP � xT P4 Xeon�@ \üX �\8�äÄ ÀÐiÈä. XÀÌ 286t ø �Ð( CPUÐ� ¬�¤� ÙXÀ JµÈä.

    2.1.2.2 % ¤

    ܤ\ ¤ ÈTôÜÐ� [email protected] äx üÀ ¥Xä (�¥ ¥X ñ) ¬tX µàD ôùX Èä. ISA, EISA, PCI, Microchannel Architecture (MCA, IBMX PS/2 �pÐ ¬©), DÈt VESALocal Bus| (VLB, VL bus|àÄ iÈä) ¬©t| iÈä.

    2.1.3 ø= tÜ

    X 0ø�Ð ¬©` VGA 8X �¤��t x0t¤| ¬©t| iÈä. \üX pX ¨à �¤��t tÜ [email protected] 8X)Èä. Dü � Ð ð�X CGA, MDA, HGAÄ ÙX4 XÀÌ, [email protected] ÀÐXÀ JµÈä. t 8�Ð� $X $X ü�Ð� X11t DƵÈä.

    pDHX ø= x0t¤ ÀÐ@ XFree86X X11 ܤ\t ÀÐXÐX ìÐ 0| °�)Èä.�X AGP, PCI � PCIe D�$ tÜ| XFree86Ð� ÀÐiÈä. ÀÐX ø= ¤, tÜ,¨È0, ìx� ¥XÐ �\ �ô Ð µÈä. pDH 3.1 ´¬¤ÐXFree86 4.3.0 �t ä´ µÈä.

    16

    http://www.debian.org/ports/http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Hardware-HOWTO.htmlhttp://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Hardware-HOWTO.htmlhttp://www.xfree86.org/

  • 2.1.4 x¸

    x¸ ôè0Ä ÀÐiÈä. x¸ ôè0 ¹Ä\ XÜè´ [email protected] Å��x XÜè´ät ´ 0Ä iÈä. ¹� x¸t GNU/¬�¤Ð� ÙX À ì| UxX$t, Linux Laptop tÀ | 8àXíÜ$

    2.1.5 ä� �\8�

    ä� �\8� ÀÐ@ (�symmetric multi-processing� [email protected] SMP|àÄ iÈä)t D¤MÐÐ� ÀÐXà, pDH ä� tøÀÐ� ÀÐiÈä. $X ø�´Ð 0|�, t SMP ä�@ 0ø

  • 2.2.3 XÜ�¤l

    XÜ �¤lÐ� Á� $X ܤ\D �X Î@ D¤MÐÐ� ` � � äx )Èä.t� X$t $X �\ø¨D XÜ �¤l\ }´ä| � äx ´� ´�� ´| iÈä.

    2.2.4 USB T¨¬

    Î@ pDH ôè0Ð� �\

  • 2.4 GNU/¬�¤| �\ XÜè´ lX0

    Å´Ð� pDH [email protected] äx GNU/¬�¤ 0ì�D $X\ ÁÜ\ ܤ\D �äiÈä. øL8Ð ÈD T Àt| ` �Ä ÀÌ, ø L8Ð ìì@ Hì` � µÈä. l\ XÜè´�GNU/¬�¤Ð� ÀÐX XÜè´| UäX0 L8Èä.

    Windows| ät� �äX ôè0| l\ ½°|t, [email protected] �t $ �¸è´ |t ¤| }´ ôíÜ$. ø |t ¤| pXà Å´Ð� XD � �¥` ÀÄ ¨Èä. 8\ t �windows-refund�¬t¸| 8àXíÜ$.

    ¬�¤� ä� ܤ\D lXà ø�À Jà �Ð, DÈt �à ܤ\D lXà �Ð, ¬�¤ä�Ð� ììX XÜè´| ÀÐX À ì| UxX �iÈä. �Ð ¸� 8à ÌÐXÜè´� ¸�´ À UxXíÜ$. ôè0 �ŬÐÐ (ät) ììt ¬�¤ ܤ\DlX$à \ä ¬äD L$ üíÜ$. ¬�¤@ \\ XÜè´ Å´| ÀÐt üíÜ$.

    2.4.1 Å��tp ÐÄ� XÜè´

  • À ÈíÜ$. ÄÜ (¬ð [email protected] (¬ð Æ SIMMôä p� T DøÀ JµÈä. � 8D¸ T¨¬Èä 1� D¸| T lX � 4t0 L8Èä.

    Intel x86 RAMÐ �\ �ô| Là ö

  • Chapter 3

    Debian GNU/Linux $XX0 �Ð

    t ¥Ð� $X �\ø¨D �X0Ä �Ð t| X pDH $X �DÐ �t äùÈä. pt01Å, XÜè´Ð �\ �ô ¨[email protected] �@ �D| t| iÈä.

    3.1 $X ü�X �

  • 13. DXäà Ý�X � �¸è´| (ܤl �/[email protected] ¸ìø) $XXíÜ$.

    $X` L 8�� �Ý` L| �Dt�, � èÄ� ´¤ ¸ìø@ Á�t À LD P µÈä. t $X èÄX ü �¸è´äD �Xt:

    $X �¸è´x debian-installer t ät¼Ð� �¥ ���D� �ù\ Ü|t| }´ätà, dhcp-client| t©t $¸Ìl ð°D $�Xà,debootstrapD ät  t¤ ܤ\ ¸ìø| $XiÈä. t xÐ T Î@ �¸è´ät � èÄÐ� @ í`äD ôùXà ÀÌ, È Ü¤\t L ÜX0LÀ �LÀ debian-installer� ÅD ÈiÈä.

     t¤Ü¤\DÈ\ÜXt, base-config|µt¬©|�Xà,Ü��|$�Xà (tzsetupDµt), ¸ìø $X ܤ\D $�iÈä (apt-setup t©). äLÐ taskselD ät ìì �(� �\ø¨X ¨LD ÝXà, aptitude| ät ��X �¸è´ ¸ìø| ÝiÈä.

    è L ܤ\t ÜX0 �Ð debian-installer� ]t, Dü 0ø�x 9 0� ܤ\Ì ¬©` � µÈä. ¨È0Ð =t ìì � $ ø= x0t¤ $XXÀ JµÈä. ÈÀÉ èÄÐ� taskselt aptitude| t©t 0\ $Xt| iÈä. tt Î@ Debian GNU/Linux ܤ\ü �Ð� ø= ¬© x0t¤� �� DÆ0 L8Èä.

    X ܤ\@ [email protected] D� ätà, ä�\ è, T õ¡iÈä. X �Ä°X $X X�Ä°X 8�� t°@ t ät¼t äè �| ´©Èä.

    3.2 0t pt0| 1ÅXíÜ$!

    ÜX0 �Ð, À� ܤ\Ð ¨à �|D 1Åt PíÜ$. ôè0Ð L

  • 3.3.2 XÜè´ �ô� ó >0

    Î@ ½°Ð $X �\ø¨Ð� ÙD ÅÈä. XÀÌ  � �DX$t, $XX0 �Ð XÜè´Ð �t LD P µÈä.

    XÜè´ �ô äLÐ� »D � µÈä:

    • XÜè´Ð �t ä´ ät¼.

    • ôè0X BIOS $� Tt. ôè0� Ü` L ´¤ ¤ piD �tt BIOS $� TtD ü �µÈä. ôµ Delete ¤Èä.

    • XÜè´X �t¤ � ì¥.

    • Windows �´�X ܤ\ =.

    • �| �¬Ð� \ÜX ñü �@, äx ´�´�X ܤ\ 9´ � ܤ\ Älä. ¹RAMü XÜ Ü|t�Ð �\ �ô| LD´ p ©iÈä.

    • ܤ\ �¬ [email protected] x07 �D¤ ¬. ì0� $¸Ìl � �T| $�Ð �(� ¬mDL � µÈä.

    Table 3.1: $XX p D\ XÜè´ �ô

    XÜè´ D` �Ä �ô

    XÜ Ü|t�

    ©Ét ¼È � À.

    ܤ\Ð ´ ��.

    IDExÀ SCSIxÀ (�X ôè0 IDEÈä).

    ¬© �¥\ H õ�.

    �ðX.

    äx ´� ´�� $X�´ �ðX.

    ¨È0

    ¨x � �p¬.

    ÀÐX tÁÄ.

    �\ % ü��.

    8\ % ü��.

    ÀÐX ÉÁ�.

    Tt l0.

    È°¤

    X: ܬ¼, PS/2, [email protected] USB.

    ì¸.

    �p¬.

    è ��.

    $¸Ìl ¨x � �p¬.

    ´�0 X.

    �°0 ¨x � �p¬.

    ÀÐX xÄ tÁÄ.

    D�$ tܨx � �p¬.

    D�$ RAM l0.

    ÀÐX tÁÄ � ÉÁ� (¨È0Ð�Ä ÀÐX À Uxt| iÈä).

    3.3.3 XÜè´ 8X1

    Î@ �äÐ� D4 8�Æt ¬�¤� ÙiÈä. � ¬�¤© XÜè´�  t � �] ��Xà µÈä. XÀÌ DÁÄ ¬�¤ äx ´�´�Ì| ä\ XX XÜè´Ð� ÙXÀ»iÈä.

    23

  • ¹, Windows� ´| ÙX XÜè´ ¬�¤Ð� t©XÀ »iÈä.

    | Windows �© XÜè´ ¬�¤ÐÄ ø � 4 XÀÌ, ôµ ��x x%t DiÈä. ä� ôµ Windows �© XÜè´X ¬�¤ Ü|t \ �X ¬�¤ ä� �Ð�Ì ø � µÈä. ø� øì\ Ü|t �) ¬©` � Æ )Èä.

    tx� [email protected] øì\ �¥ ���x XÜè´Èä. �°[email protected] ø xX ¥XÄ �Ä° �©tµÈä.

    äL )Dô0. \ L$Ä Á\X �t T Ît L$Ä �X Ü|[email protected] $�äD ø�\ ¬©X0Ä iÈä.

    • tù D¤MÐÐ �\ ù¬t¸Ð� ¬�¤ XÜè´ 8X1 ©] Ux.

    • x07Ð� äx ¬©X ¬©ô Ét ô0.

    3.3.4 $¸Ìl $�

    ôè0� Xè 24Ü� ´´ $¸ÌlÐ ð°�´ ät (tT7t ø�@ ð°X ½° � PPP DØ), $¸Ìl ܤ\ �¬Ð tì\ �ô| LD�| iÈä.

    • 8¤¸ t (Á� °�` �Ä µÈä).

    • ÄTx t.

    • ôè0X IP ü.

    • $¸ÌlÐ ¬©` $¸È¤l.

    • |°�X p ø 0ø t¸èt ܤ\X IP ü (t¸èt� ½°).

    • $¸ÌlÐ� DNS (Domain Name Service) �\ ¬©` ܤ\.

    \¸ �¬� DHCP �| ¬©` � äà Xà DHCP � ¬©D \äà Xt, t �ô�D ƵÈä. $X` L DHCP �Ð� ôè0Ð t �ô| L$Èä.

    4 $¸Ìl| ¬©\ät, äLÄ LD�| iÈä:

    • 4 $¸ÌlX ESSID.

    • WEP ôH ¤ (ät).

    3.4 \ XÜè´ l¬m Þ0

    ôè0X XÜè´Ð �\ �ô| ¨X

  • ¼È � À �µ L � µÈä.

    \� � @ � �\�|Èä. X ¬©ät ð ìì�À �\ø¨ät Æ, ©ÉD �x�Ð �Èä. FTP �, ù �, DNS, NIS, POP �� ä´ µÈä. 100MBX �¤l õ�tt ©Xà, �D¤X$ pt0Ð D\ õ�t T DiÈä.

    p¤lÑ \� p¤lÑ ôè0\, X �Ä° ܤ\, D�\ p¤lÑ X½, ¬´Ü, 8� ¸Ñ0 ñtä´ µÈä. \� p¤lÑ Ü¤l| $XXt } 2GB� DXÀÌ, øôä �@ ©É

  • 0ÄÐ DOS WindowsÐ� ¬©X FAT NTFS �| ܤ\t

  • « ø\ D\ t pDH øì ¬t¸Ð� tools/ � ¬Ð fips �\ø¨Èä. U �|D à RESTORRB.EXE, FIPS.EXE, ERRORS.TXT �|D � �¥ �\

  • Phoenix BIOS Ctrl–Alt–Esc DÈt Ctrl–Alt–S DÈt F1

    äx BIOS| äX )Ð �\ �ô Ð µÈä.

    | Intel x86 0ÄÐ BIOSÐ CMOS $� Tt� ƵÈä. �¸è´ CMOS $� �\ø¨t DiÈä. tù 0ÄX $X �/[email protected] Äè �¤�t Æät, p´è´/�¬è´ �\ø¨D ¬©t ü� µÈä. ¬t¸| ´´ ôíÜ$.

    3.6.2 � ¥X Ý

    Î@ BIOSX $� TtÐ� ܤ\D �X p ø ¥X| Ý` � µÈä. ì0Ð� A:Ð�´� ´�| �XÄ] $�Xà, ø äLÐ « ø CD-ROM ¥X\ (DÈÄ D: E:) Xà, ø äLÐ C:\ (« ø XÜ �¤l) $�XíÜ$. t� $�Xt �\< �¤l CD-ROMÐ� �iÈä. � pDHD �` L t X �X XÐ� �iÈä.

    \àX SCSI è¸dì� à SCSIÐ CD-ROM ¥X� ´ ät ôµ CD-ROMÐ� �` � D Èä. t| � |@ è¸dìX SCSI BIOSÐ� CD-ROM �D � | ÐÈä.

    ø �X Ît ð 5X

  • 3.6.3 0À BIOS $�

    3.6.3.1 CD-ROM $�

    ´¤ BIOS ܤ\@ (�: Award BIOS) CD Ä| $�` � µÈä. Ä| $�XÀ Ðà, øå\� Ä\ l| iÈä. seek failed $X T8À� $ �ät t 8� L8| �Ä µÈä.

    3.6.3.2 [email protected] Expanded Memory

    ܤ\Ð� [email protected] expanded memory� ¨P ät, extended memory| \�\

  • 3.6.4 üXt| ` XÜè´ t

    Î@ ¬ät CPU| 90 MHz| 100 [email protected] �t $t]¹t� Ì¬à µÈä. t� tÄ ÙX0Ä XÀÌ, (Ä � ø �X xÐ ü�Xà ܤ\t Ý�È �Ä µÈä. t 8�X ��X\ @ 1DÙH ܤ\D $t]¹t� h Tp gcc �\ø¨

  • 3.6.4.5 64 MB RAM tÁ

    ¬�¤ ä�Ð� RAMX ©ÉD mÁ �U LD´À »iÈä. øð ½°, 5.2�Ð ´©D 8àXíÜ$.

    31

  • Chapter 4

    ܤ\ $X ø�´ »0

    4.1 õÝ Debian GNU/Linux CD-ROM 8¸

    ìì �À ) �Ð� Debian GNU/Linux $XÐ �¥ l´ )@ õÝ pDH CD-ROM 8¸\ $XX Èä. CD 8¸ �äX ¬Ð� (CD �ä ¬ tÀ 8à) l` � µÈä. $¸Ìl ð°t `tà, CD |t0�

  • 4.3 �¤l tøÀÐ� �\< Ìä0

    ôµ CD äx )

  • 4.4.1 �| õ¬X0 � l´ )

    There is an all-in-one file hd-media/boot.img.gz which contains all the installer files (including thekernel) as well as SYSLINUX and its configuration file. You only have to extract it directly to yourUSB stick:

    # zcat boot.img.gz > /dev/sda

    üX

    Using this method will destroy anything already on the device. Make sure that you use the correct devicename for your USB stick.

    ø äL USB T¨¬ ¤ñD È´¸XíÜ$. (mount /dev/sda /mnt) t USB T¨¬ ¤ñÐ a FATfilesystemt ä´ à, ø HÐ pDH $¸Ìl $X ISO tøÀ [email protected] DÀȤ tÜ ISO tøÀ� ä´ µÈä. �| tt .iso\ ]| \ä Ð üXXíÜ$. ä ]t È´¸ t�XíÜ$.(umount /mnt)

    4.4.2 �| õ¬X0 � ð\ )

    T ð\ )t ät, DÈt 4¨ |t |´à À ôà ö0|Ä Xät, äL )

  • # syslinux /dev/sda1

    äÜ ÐXÀÌ, འh� ¥X tD ,�t ðíÜ$. SYSLINUX| ä` L ø �ðXD È´¸Xt H )Èä. t [email protected] �ðXÐ ¸ 90| ðà, ¸\T TÜ� ä´ ldlinux.sys �|D ÌíÈä.

    �ðXD È´¸Xà (mount /dev/sda1 /mnt) pDH Dtt�Ð� äL �|D ¤ñ

  • 4.5 XÜ �¤l �Ð D\ �| �DX0

    $X �\ø¨@ 0t XÜ Ü|t� �ðXÐ ä´ � �|D t©t� �` � µÈä.äx ´�´�| µt� ä` �Ä à, DÈt BIOSÐ� Á� ¸ \T| ä` �Ä µÈä.

    �$¸ÌlÌ� ¬©t D� $XX$t t )D ¬©Xt )Èä. $¸Ìl $X| ¬©Xt CD tøÀ| >D� l¸ DÄ Æà, ìì ¥X H\ �\

  • CMU bootpd| ¬©X$t, /etc/inetd.confÐ� �(� �X TX¸| Æ`p \ �D �t|iÈä. Debian GNU/LinuxÐ update-inetd --enable bootps| ä\ äL �©X$t /etc/init.d/inetd reload 9D äiÈä. ø �@ äLü �@ ¨Èä:

    bootps dgram udp wait root /usr/sbin/bootpd bootpd -i -t 120

    t� /etc/bootptab �|D Ìä´| iÈä. t �|@ üpX BSD printcap, termcap, disktab�|ü �t u�Xt�Ä Xø| L0 ´$´ �Ý

  • }

    üX: \üX (¥) dhcp3 ¸ìø /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf �|D ¬©iÈä.

    t ��Ð�, DHCP �, TFTP �, $¸Ìl t¸èt í`D ¨P X servernamet| �� äà ��iÈä. domain-name 5XÄ �¸à, � tü t|t¸¸ XÜè´ üÄ �Ô| iÈä. filename [email protected] TFTP\ �8$$ �|X tÈä.

    dhcpd $� �|D ¸Ñ\ äLÐ, /etc/init.d/dhcpd restart 9

  • pDH ¸ìøX ½°Ð $XÌ Xt 0ø�D� kill -HUP inetd-pid 9D äiÈä.

    4.6.4 TFTP tøÀ| �ù\ �XÐ .00

    ø äLÐ, D\ TFTP � tøÀ| 4.2.1�Ð ðì ü tftpd � tøÀ � ¬Ð õ¬t

  • $¸Ìl| $�` � D ½°Ð �¥ ©iÈä. $X ° ��| ”�”\ t� $¸Ìl| $�` LLÀ D4 È8Ä XÀ JÄ] ` � µÈä. 5.2.1� D 8àXíÜ$.

    CDÐ ø¬ $�t @ �|D #

  • Chapter 5

    $X ܤ\ �X0

    5.1 Intel x86Ð� $X �\ø¨ �X0

    5.1.1 CD-ROM� �X0

    �X ¬äÐ �¥ l´ )@ pDH CD 8¸| t©X Èä. CD 8¸| �Àà à, 0ÄÐ� Á� CD �D ` � ät ä° @ ½°Èä. 3.6.2�Ð $�´ �\ CDÐ� ܤ\D �` � Ä] $�Xà, CD| #@ äL, äÜ �Xà, äL ¥

  • append="devfs=mount,dall ramdisk_size=12000"

    T 8\ �ô, initrd(4) � lilo.conf(5) ètÀ| 8àXíÜ$. t� lilo| äXà äÜ �XíÜ$.

    GRUB ¬©@ Dü D·iÈä. menu.lst �|D /boot/grub/ � ¬Ð (´¤ ½° /boot/boot/grub/) à, äL �D �XíÜ$:

    title New Installkernel (hd0,0)/boot/newinstall/vmlinuz root=/dev/ram0 ramdisk_size=12000initrd (hd0,0)/boot/newinstall/initrd.gz

    ø¬à äÜ �XíÜ$. �t ä(Xt �kernel� �Ð devfs=mount,dallD �t ôíÜ$.

    ramdisk sizeX �D initrd tøÀ l0Ð 0| p�t| ` �Ä µÈä. t tÄ0 [email protected] ¬tÐ (t�t ƵÈä.

    5.1.3 USB T¨¬ ¤ñÐ� �X0

    3.6.2� � 4.4�X ¨à D �Däà Xt, USB ¤ñD H USB ä%0Ð =à ôè0| äÜ �XíÜ$. ܤ\t �t� boot: �l�¸� @| iÈä. p0Ð� � �|ø0| �\ #D �Ä à, øå Enter| �| �Ä µÈä.

    ôè0� USB T¨¬ ¥XÐ� �D ÀÐXÀ J ½°, �\

  • 5.1.5 TFTP\ �X0

    $¸ÌlÐ� �X$t, $¸ÌlÐ ð°�´ ´| Xà TFTP $¸Ìl ¸ �� (DHCP,RARP [email protected] BOOTP) DiÈä.

    $¸Ìl �D ÀÐX $X )@ 4.6�Ð $�´ µÈä.

    i386Ð� TFTP �D X ìì �À )t µÈä.

    5.1.5.1 PXE| ÀÐX NIC [email protected] ÈTôÜ

    $¸Ìl x0t¤ tÜ ÈTôÜÐ� PXE � 0¥D ÀÐ` �Ä µÈä. PXE IntelTMÐ� TFTP �D äÜ Ìà Èä. PXE| ÀÐX ½° $¸Ìl �D XÄ] BIOS| $�`� D Èä.

    5.1.5.2 $¸Ìl ¸lt ä´ NIC

    $¸Ìl x0t¤ tÜÐ� TFTP � 0¥D ÀÐ` �Ä µÈä.

    ´» À L$ üíÜ$ (). t 8�| ¸t üíÜ$.

    5.1.5.3 Etherboot

    etherboot project Ð TFTPboot| ` � � �¤�ü ¸ltµÈä.

    5.1.6 � �l�¸

    $X �\ø¨t �` L, pDH \à@ äL � �l�¸� \Ü� \ü\ ø= Ttt À©Èä:

    Press F1 for help, or ENTER to boot:

    � �l�¸Ð� øå Enter ¤| �ì 0ø 5X

  • 5.2 � �|ø0

    � �|ø0 ¬�¤ ä� �|ø0\ ôµ üÀ ¥X| ��\ ÙXÄ] �´X p t©iÈä. � ä�Ð� üÀ ¥XÐ �\ �ô| ÙD ÅÈä. XÀÌ ½°Ð �|ø0\ ä�D p� Ä@�| iÈä.

    ܤ\D « ø\ �X ½°|t, 0ø � �|ø0| ÜÄt ôÜà ( �|ø0| ¬©XÀJ ) ��\ ÙX À ôíÜ$. ôµ@ ��\ Ù` Èä. ��\ ÙXÀ J ½°ÐäÜ �t� XÜè´Ð D\ ¹Ä\ �|ø0� À >D ôíÜ$.

    ��|ø0Ð�\�ô Linux BootPrompt HOWTO Ð (ìì�À ô0Ü8 XÜè´Ð �\ �ô ìh) µÈä. ì0� �À Îtt©X �|ø0Ð �\ �µÌ äùÈä. Ît �ÝX 8�� � 5.3�Ð ä´ µÈä.

    ä�t �` L äLü �@ T8À� @| iÈä:

    Memory:availk/totalk available

    ì0� [email protected] �´ RAMX l0Èä(¬\�t¸ è�). t +� ä� $X\ RAMX ©Éü ätät, mem=ram �|ø0| ¬©t| iÈä. ì0� [email protected] T¨¬X tà, ¬\�t¸X ½° “k”,T��t¸X ½° “m”D ¤Ð Èä. �| ä´, mem=65536k [email protected] ¨P 64MBX RAMD;iÈä.

    ܬ¼ X\ �X ½°, ôµ ÙDÅÈä. ܬ¼ X\ �X$ ôè0Ð D�$tÜ@ (��|) ¤ôÜ� ´ ät, console=device �|ø0| ä�Ð �¨| ` � µÈä. ì0� device ܬ¼ ¥Xtà, ttyS0ü �t �Èä.

    5.2.1 pDH $X �\ø¨ �|ø0

    $X ܤ\Ð� ©X ø �Ä � �|ø0 �| T xÝiÈä1.

    debconf/priority tôä �p @ ° ��X T8ÀÌ \ÜiÈä.

    0ø $XÐ� debconf/priority=high| ¬©iÈä. , L ° ��@ D� ° ��XT8À| \ÜXÀÌ, ôµü ®L ° �� T8À �´�Èä. 8�� �Ý` ½°Ð $X �\ø¨Ð� ° ��| DÐ 0| p�iÈä.

    debconf/priority=mediumD � �|ø0\ ô ½°, $X TtÐ� $X TtÐ� T Î@ p�D`�µÈä. debconf/priority=low|àô½°,¨àT8À|ü�µÈä. (expert� )ü Ù|iÈä.) debconf/priority=criticalX ½°, D� T8ÀÌ \ÜXà È8äРའðÀ Jà $X| ÄiÈä.

    DEBIAN FRONTEND t � �|ø0 $X �\ø¨Ð� ¬©` ¬© x0t¤ X|$�iÈä. �¬ �¥\ �|ø0 �@:

    • DEBIAN FRONTEND=noninteractive

    • DEBIAN FRONTEND=text

    • DEBIAN FRONTEND=newt

    • DEBIAN FRONTEND=slang

    • DEBIAN FRONTEND=ncurses

    • DEBIAN FRONTEND=bogl

    • DEBIAN FRONTEND=gtk1ä�Ð� \� 8�X 9 5Xü 8�X X½ 5XÌ ¬©` � µÈä ($X �\ø¨Ð� 0ø

  • • DEBIAN FRONTEND=corba

    0ø�`¸ÔÜ DEBIAN FRONTEND=newtÈä. ܬ¼X$XX½° DEBIAN FRONTEND=text�T D �Ä µÈä. ôµ 0ø $X ø�´Ð� newt �`¸ÔÜÌ ¬©` � 0 L8Ð,t �|ø0 �¬ Ä\ ø¨� ƵÈä.

    BOOT DEBUG 2 . 3 .( .)

    BOOT DEBUG=0 0ø�Èä.

    BOOT DEBUG=1 ôµLôä Î@ �E �ô.

    BOOT DEBUG=2 �E �ô Dü Ît.

    BOOT DEBUG=3 � ü�X óóÐ� XD ät� 8 �ED ` � µÈä. �D ÄX$t XD �t )Èä.

    INSTALL MEDIA DEV t �|ø0X �@ pDH $X �\ø¨D }´ä| ¥XX ½\Èä.�| ä´ INSTALL MEDIA DEV=/dev/floppy/0

    ¸ �\

  • 5.3 $X ü�X 8� t°

    5.3.1 �\< �¤l à°1

    �\< �¤l| ¬©t $XX ¬t ª �¥ p 8� �\< �¤l à°1 8�| Èä.

    ¸ �\

  • 5.3.3.1 PCMCIA $� èÄÐ� ܤ\ H¤

    DellÐ� �p\ | x¸ ¨[email protected] PCMCIA ¥X| >D L ¹� XÜè´ üÐ �üX �� H° ½Èä. ø xX x¸ ¨xÄ D·\ �Át À  � µÈä. Ì} øì\ 8�� �ÝXà$X`L PCMCIA0¥tDÆät, hw-detect/start pcmcia=false��|ø0\ PCMCIA|L � µÈä. $X| È\ äLÐ PCMCIA| $�t� 8�� �ÝX l�D �x` � µÈä.

    äx)

  • Date:

    Machine: Processor:Memory:Partitions:

    Output of lspci and lspci -n:

    Base System Installation Checklist:[O] = OK, [E] = Error (please elaborate below), [ ] = didn’t try it

    Initial boot worked: [ ]Configure network HW: [ ]Config network: [ ]Detect CD: [ ]Load installer modules: [ ]Detect hard drives: [ ]Partition hard drives: [ ]Create file systems: [ ]Mount partitions: [ ]Install base system: [ ]Install boot loader: [ ]Reboot: [ ]

    Comments/Problems:

    In the bug report, describe what the problem is, including the last visible kernel messages in the eventof a kernel hang. Describe the steps that you did which brought the system into the problem state.

    50

  • Chapter 6

    pDH $X �\ø¨ ¬©X0

    6.1 $X �\ø¨t ÙX )Ý

    pDH $X �\ø¨@ ìì �À ©ÄX ìì l1 \ l1�´ à, � l1 Èä $X ÅD �iÈä. � l1 tù ÅD �Xt� ø ÅÐ D\ �ô| ¬©Ð

  • 6.2 l1 �

    ä[email protected] $X �\ø¨X l1 @ � l1 � X |Ð �\ �è\ $Èä. ¹� l1 | ¬©X )Ð �t T 8\ �ô 6.3�Ð µÈä.

    main-menu $X �\ø¨t ÙX �Ð l1 X ©]D \ÜXà, l1 | ÝXt øl1 | ÜiÈä. Tx TtX È[email protected] ° ��� ��t0 L8Ð, ° ��| Lt �\ t

  • lvmcfg ì0� LVM(Logical Volume Manager)D $�iÈä.

    mdcfg ì0� �¸è´ RAID(Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks)| $�iÈä. t �¸è´ RAID \ü ÈTôÜÐ ä´ øl$ IDE RAID (�Ü XÜè´ RAID) è¸dìôä �´\ °�iÈä.

    base-installer äÜ ÜD L ¬�¤� ÙX p D\ �¥ 0ø�x ¸ìø| $XiÈä.

    os-prober ôè0Ð À� $X�´ ´� ´�| >D� ø �ô| bootloader-installerÐ �AÈä. øìt bootloader-installerÐ� t ´� ´�| ¸ \T Ü TtÐ �` � µÈä.t� Xt �` L ´¤ ´� ´�| Ü` À } Ý` � µÈä.

    bootloader-installer XÜ �¤lÐ ¸ \T �\ø¨D $XiÈä. ø| �\D¸ äLÐ, ä\ 0¥D � $X ܤ\

  • �@ T¨¬Ð� $X` L, ¨à l1 | ¬©` � ƵÈä. ø q\ � �X X $XЬ©` ¸´| ÈL�\ Ý` � Æä �Èä.

    6.3.1.2 ¸´ Ý

    $X « èÄ\, ´¤ ¸´\ $X| Ä` À ÝXíÜ$. ¸´ [email protected] ©]Ð� (|½X) �´@($x½X) tù ¸´\ (tù ¸´X 8\) ðì µÈä. t ©]@ �´ t ��\ �´ µÈä.

    ì0� ÝX ¸´| ¬©t 8À $X ü�D ÄiÈä. è ø ¸´\ tù �T ÁäX ít ´| )Èä. ø ¸´\ � í8t ÆÀ JµÈä.) ISO tøÀ| > p ä(Xt, iso-scanÐ� Ät� tøÀ| >D À ì| DÈ|, ¨à �| ܤ\D ¤8�Èä.

    iso-scanÐ� $X �\ø¨ ISO tøÀ| �¬XÀ »ät, Ð ´� ´�\ äÜ Üt� tøÀ tt ,�x À (.iso\ ] À), debian-installer� xÝ` � �| ܤ\Ð ä´ À, �|t Á�À JXÀ (´l, Ux) UxXíÜ$. ½Ø Î@ ɤ ¬©|t äÜ ÜXÀ Jà P ø XÐ� ` �Ä µÈä.

    54

  • 6.3.1.6 $¸Ìl $�X0

    t èÄÐ ä´TD L ܤ\Ð� $¸Ìl ¥X| P � tÁ >

  • �ðX )D ÝXt, ø äL TtÐ� È\ Ìà �ðX Lt�t À©Èä. ì0Ð �ðXDì÷` �Ýü È´¸` �XÐ �\ �ôÄ ä´ µÈä.

    �ðX ©]@ äLü �t À©Èä:

    IDE1 master (hda) - 6.4 GB WDC AC36400L#1 primary 16.4 MB ext2 /boot#2 primary 551.0 MB swap swap#3 primary 5.8 GB ntfs

    pri/log 8.2 MB FREE SPACE

    IDE1 slave (hdb) - 80.0 GB ST380021A#1 primary 15.9 MB ext3#2 primary 996.0 MB fat16#3 primary 3.9 GB xfs /home#5 logical 6.0 GB ext3 /#6 logical 1.0 GB ext3 /var#7 logical 498.8 MB ext3#8 logical 551.5 MB swap swap#9 logical 65.8 GB ext2

    �X �Ð� IDE XÜÜ|t�� 2�tà ìì � �ðX

  • �ðXt ÈLt ät, �ðX TtÐ� �ðX �0| ÈXà �� ¬mD �¤lÐ ð0| ÝXíÜ$. �¤lÐ �� �Ð �\ }t Àà t�\ �| ܤ\D ÌäÀ UxiÈä.

    6.3.2.2 |¬ üh �¬ (LVM) $�X0

    ܤ\ �¬ �à� ¬© ¥Ð� ôè0| ¬©\ät, ´¤ �¤l �ðXt (ôµ �¥ �\ �ðX) õ�t qXà äx �ð[email protected] õ�t ¨D� pt0| .0à ìü Ál| xà XñX Å

  • à��´ À Jà (à��´

  • 6.3.3  t¤ ܤ\ $XX0

    t èÄ 8�� �Ý` �¥1t �¥ ®ÀÌ, $X` L �¥ Î@ Ü�D ¨iÈä. ì0�  t¤ ܤ\ �´| ´$�à, Ux\ äL, UD Èä. ôè0� ¬p $¸Ìl ð°t ¬ät Ü�t x´ �Ä µÈä.

    6.3.3.1  t¤ ܤ\ $X

     t¤ $X �Ð (¤À| à $�Xt� $ T8À tty3Ð� \ÜiÈä. t 0ø�@ |½Alt–F3D �tt t©` � µÈä. $X �\ø¨ TtD�Èä. ¸\T� ÀÐX ´� ´�� D L, �ðXt È´¸�´ À »` �Ä µÈä. t �Á@ partmanÐ� äx ´�´�� ä´ �ðXÐ È´¸ �X| À�D ½°(�| ä´ /win) �ÝiÈä. DÈt XÐ� �ðXD �Ù

  • GRUBD D� $XXÀ J

  • 6.3.5.1 $X ÈX0 � äÜ ÜX0

    pDH $X ü�X «øÐ� �| ÈÀÉ èÄÈä. $X �\ø¨D �` L ¬©X � ø�´| (CD, �\< ñ) || Ðt 5Èä. ì0� ¨@ ÅD ä È\ äLÐ, È\ $X\ pDH ܤ\

  • À JDÄ Ð© $X� �¥XÀÌ =X LP¬|XÀ, }D � Æ ASCII� DÌ 8ü \Ü� hÈ �Ä µÈä. $X ܤ\Ð ð°X$t �è äLü �@ 9D ¬©Xt )Èä:

    $ ssh -l installer install_host

    ì0� install host $X` ôè0X tt IP üÈä. ä�\ \øxX0 �РЩ ܤ\X Qp�°¸� \Ü tà, t Qp�°¸� ,�x À Uxt| iÈä.

    ìì ôè0| ¨P $XX ½°Ð IP ü [email protected] 8¤¸ tt �@ ½°, øð 8¤¸ sshÐ� ð°D piÈä. ø t Qp�°¸� ät0 L8tà, Qp�°¸� ätä t ¤xQ õ©X ÕpÈä. ¤xQt DÈ|à UàX ½°, ˜/.ssh/known hostsÐ� tù �D À°à äÜ ð°Xt )Èä.

    \øx\ äLÐ \� Ttt $t p0Ð� Tt Üü X Ü �X X| Ý` � µÈä.�X ½° $X �\ø¨X ü Tt\ � �à, p0Ð� \ìÐ�@ È,�À\ $X ÅD Ä` � µÈä. Ä XD ät� Щ ܤ\D ´´ôà 8��D ��` � µÈä. $XTt \ �X SSH 8XÌ ô´| iÈä. XÀÌ XX ½°Ð ìì �| ô´Ä )Èä.

    üX

    SSHD µt Щ

  • Chapter 7

    È\´ pDH ܤ\

  • ÌÜ ´¤ T8|Ä �´Ä 6tÁ tà, �[email protected] 8 ¹� 8 ñt ìh� t µÈä.root T8| $�` LÄ� \t É�X0 L8Ð T üX| 0¸ì ü8. ¬�Ð @ è´ !` � �x �ôX ¬©@

  • Ð� xä@ùàX IPüX+äDÀÅÈä. Ý�

  • øì| Ý\ ÄÐ �]Ü �| ¬©X À

  • 7.2.5.1 aptitude| ¬©\ à (¤À Ý

    Aptitude (¤À �¬| �\ \à �\ø¨Èä. aptitude ùàt �Ä (¤À ü´Ä 0�Ð Þ (¤ÀäX Ñit �´ ܤl| Ý` � tÈä.

    �¥ 0ø�x ¤ ð°@ äLü �µÈä.

    Key Action

    Up, Down ÝD �/D\ ÀÁ

    Enter Dt\ ô0/ë0/\1T

    + (¤À $XXÄ] \Ü

    - (¤À| �pXÄ] \Ü

    d (¤À Xt1 ôìü0

    g (¤À ä´\Ü/$X/�p| ä�\ �

    q �¬ ôìÀ D øÌ`

    F10 Tt \1T

    T Î@ 9´Ð �t ô0| Ð\ät ? ¤| �ì (|x ÄÀÐD ô8.

    7.2.6 �¸è´ $X �X �l�¸

    tasksel � aptitude| µt Ý� � (¤Àä@ [email protected] dpkg �\ø¨D µt ä´\Ü �Ä (¤À� ¬à, $X)Èä. ¹� �\ø¨t ¬©\ 0 T Î@ �ô| D\ X ½° tü�Ð� ùàÐ Ü

  • À� $� Hh ùàt X Ð �t ���D � µÈä.

    7.3 \4

    (¤ÀäX $X� ] ¤Ð \4 �l�¸� ôìÈ Èä. Ý\ �x \4 Ä�ü T8| ¬©t \4iÈä. ùàX ܤ\@ t� ¬©` �D� �ȵÈä.

    È\´ ¬©|t ܤ\ ¬©D Ü ` L tø $X�´ 8�äD ô0| Ð` Èä. �¬ �X 8� ܤ\ät à, äx ÀX 8�äD µiX Åt Ä �Èä. t 8� íÜ �X Ü À�Èä.

    $X� �\ø¨äÐ 0|$ 8� /usr/share/doc/ HX �\ø¨X tD 0x X� � ¬Ð µÈä. �| ät ùàX ܤ\Ð äx �\ø¨D $XX0 �\ apt| ¬©X0 �\ APT ¬© �tÜ /usr/share/doc/guide.html/index.html HÐ �Xt µÈä.

    ��

  • Chapter 8

    äL èÄ � ø äLÐ ` |

    8.1 ɤ| L �\ät

    ɤ| L �\ät, DÈ ED ¬� } D Èä. � ìì�À @ �ôätDebian Reference Ð µÈä. list ofUnix FAQs Ð í¬�x Ìm\ 8àÌät ä´ ìì�À 7 8� ©]t ä´ µÈä.

    ¬�¤ ɤ| l�\ Èä. Linux Documentation Project (LDP) ¬t¸Ð ¬�¤Ð �\ ìì�À [email protected] (|x ��t µÈä. t 8� �@ ôè0ÐÁ� $X` �Ä µÈä. doc-linux-html ¸ìø (HTML �) DÈt doc-linux-text ¸ìø|(ASCII �) $XXÜà, /usr/share/doc/HOWTO HX �|D }´ôíÜ$. ìì�À ¸´\�´ LDP HOWTOÄ pDH ¸ìø� µÈä.

    8.2 pDHÐ u�tÀ0

    [email protected] äx 0ì�äü }� äÈä. äx 0ì�Ð u�t8 äà tÄ �À LDl| ܤ\D ÌmXà TT\ ÁÜ\ ÀiÈä t ¥Ð� pDHÐ u�tÀ )D $iÈä. pDHD ¬©X )D XX $XÀ Jà, 1\ äD �t Dü }�X ܤ\ �Ì $iÈä.

    8.2.1 pDH ¸ìø ܤ\

    LD| ` �¥ �\ �@ pDH ¸ìø ܤ\Èä. ÐY�

  • 8.2.2 �\ø¨ � �¬

    �@ tX �\ø¨t ìì�À �t ½° update-alternativesÐ� �¬iÈä. ìì �X�\ø¨D �¬Xà ät, update-alternative ètÀ| }´ ôíÜ$.

    8.2.3 CRON Å �¬

    ܤ\ �¬� �¬X Åä@ ¨P /etc HÐ ä´ ´| iÈä. è¸ CRON Å

  • 8.4 ø xÐ }D ü �ô

    ¹� �\ø¨Ð �\ �ô| ô$t, man �\ø¨ 9D ät ôÜà, DÈt info �\ø¨ 9D ät ôíÜ$.

    /usr/share/doc HÐÄ ©\ 8�� Ît ä´ µÈä. ¹ /usr/share/doc/HOWTO � /usr/share/doc/FAQÐ ¬ø �ô� Ît ä´ µÈä. ø| �X$t /usr/share/doc/debian/bug* �|äD ôíÜ$. ´¤ ¹� �\ø¨X pDH �( �ô| }

  • Hereafter, we’ll assume you have free rein over your machine and will extract your kernel source tosomewhere in your home directory1. We’ll also assume that your kernel version is 2.6.12. Make sure youare in the directory to where you want to unpack the kernel sources, extract them using tar xjf /usr/src/linux-source-2.6.12.tar.bz2 and change to the directory linux-source-2.6.12 that will havebeen created.

    ø¬à ä�D $�iÈä. X11D $XXà ä�t|t make xconfig| äiÈä. DÈt makemenuconfig| äiÈä. (menuconfig libncurses5-dev ¸ìø| $Xt| iÈä.) (|x ÄÀÐD}´ôÜt�üX|0¸ì ÝXíÜ$. T�Xì¤ì´

  • Appendix A

    $X )

    t 8� È\´ debian-installer| ¬©Xì Intel x86 © Debian GNU/Linux sarge (�i386�) | $XX )D $iÈä. $XX ÙH D\ �ôÐ �\ �µ\ $D ôà µÈä. T Î@ �ô� D` LÐ Debian GNU/Linux InstallationGuide HX T 8\ $ü ð°` Èä.

    A.1 ¬� �D

    debian-installer DÁ  À ÁÜ Èä. Ì| $X� ø| ô�t, ´» ø ø| L$|XÀ 5.3.6�| 8p tü8. t 8�Ð� õÀD »À »\ �\ ¬mä@ debian-boot T|Á ¬¤¸([email protected]) Ð L$üp IRC (freenode $¸ÌlX #debian-boot D�) Ð È8tü8.

    A.2 $X�¬ ÜX0

    CD tøÀäX Ál debian-installer HtÀ | )8t ô8. debian-cd �@ pDH CD tÀ Ð� debian-installer| ¬©\ CD tøÀäD �õiÈä. CDäD ´�� »D � ÀÐ t\ T 8\ �ô 4.1�| ô8.

    | $X )Ð CD tøÀ xX äx tøÀäD D\ iÈä. debian-installer HtÀÐäxtøÀäXÁl�µÈä. 4.2.1�pDH øìÐ� ´» tøÀäD >D � À| $iÈä.

    äL 9XäÐ ��X �¥\ $X )äD �t ´¤ tøÀäD �D| X ÀÐ �t 8\ $D ` Èä.

    A.2.1 CDROM

    debian-installer\ sargeD $X` � P XX netinst CD tøÀät µÈä. t tøÀä@ CD\ �t� � (¤ÀäD $¸Ìl| µt $XX0 L8Ð ’netinst’| tD �ÑÈä.P tøÀäX (t�@ X  t¤ (¤Àät ìh� full netinst tøÀtà, äx X t (¤ÀäD ä´\Ü �D|X business card tøÀ| Èä. Ð\ät $XÐ $¸Ìl� DÆ full size CD tøÀ| �D �Ä µÈä. $XÐ �´ 8¸Ð� èÀ « ø CDÌ D` Èä.

    8X tøÀ| ´$ �D CD| }µÈä. CD\ �X0 �t 3.6.1�Ð $� �\ BIOS $�D �Ô| ` �Ä µÈä.

    73

    http://www.debian.org/devel/debian-installer/http://www.debian.org/devel/debian-installer/http://www.debian.org/CD/http://www.debian.org/devel/debian-installer/

  • A.2.2 �\<

    Ì| CD\ �` � Æät, pDHD $XX0�t �\< tøÀäD �D � µÈä. D\ tøä@ floppy/boot.img, floppy/root.imgtà, Tt� Ü|t �¤l� D` � µÈä.

    ¸ �\

  • A.3 $X

    $X�¬| ÜXt �0 TtD ü Èä. Enter| �tp äx ¸ )äü �|ø0ä(5.2� 8p)D �\ $D }´ ô8. Ì} 2.6 ä�D Ð\ät, boot: �l�¸Ð� linux26D %X8. 1

     Ü ÄÐ ¸´| ÝX t ô| Èä. )¥¤| ¬©Xì ¸´| ÝXà Enter| �ìÄ ÄiÈä. äL

  • A.5 ÈÀÉ..

    °¬ ùàX pDH $X� à pDHt øÌXä D �¬X8 �Èä. DÈÄ ùà@8¥| }0| Ð` Èä.

    76

  • Appendix B

    pDHX XÜ�¤l �ðX

    B.1 �ðXD � L �ðXX l0 ñ à$` �

    GNU/Linux �©

  • � ¬ ´©etc t 8¤¸ à X $��| ñ

    home ¬©X H� ¬

    lib ܤ\ ´�Ð D��x õ |t�ì¬@ ä� ¨Èä

    media �\< �¤� ñX È) �¥\ ä´| È´¸ ܤ � ¬

    mnt �| ܤ\D Ü\ È´¸ ܤ � ¬

    proc ä� [email protected] 2.6Ð� ܤ\ �ô| �¥X �Á � ¬

    root root ¬©X H� ¬

    sbin D��x ܤ\ �¬ �t�¬

    sys 2.6 ä�t ܤ\ �ô| �¥X �Á � ¬

    tmp Ü �|ä

    usr 2(�x � ¬ lp

    var ´©t ü ÀX �|ä

    opt ÄÄ\ �X Q© �¸è´

    � ¬@ XÜ�¤l �ðXD l1` L à$t| ` �äD DÐ �¬µÈä. ä� �¤l ¬©É@ � ܤ\X $�ü ü ¬©©ÄÐ 0| ì|È � µÈä. DX ´©@ 8àÌ XÜà ä� $�Ð � ܤ\Ð Þ Xä D iÈä.

    • /etc, /bin, /sbin, /lib, /dev �ÜÜ è¸ �ðX(/)Ð t¬t| iÈä. ø�À JD ½° �Ð 8�� �ÝiÈä. |��

  • pDHÐ� �õXÀ J �\ø¨D Ît $X` ½° /usr/local| ÄÄX �ðXÐ P t D �Ä µÈä. T|�| ½°Ð /var/mail| ÄÄX �ðXÐ P t

  • 8à\, SCSI 8¤¸ ¤ ´�0(è¸dì)� D ½° ´ Ü|t�� «øxÀ UxX0 ´$¸ � µÈä. t ½°Ô �Ü TtÐ \Ü� Ü|t� ¨xü 0¥D ´´ôà ´ Ü|t��sdaÐ ð°�ÈÀ UxX \ X )Èä.

    ¬�¤ �ð[email protected] Ü|t� t ¤Ð + 1Ð� 4| ì� ü�ðXD liÈä. �| ä´, «ø IDEÜ|t�X «ø �ð[email protected] /dev/hda1Èä. |¬�ð[email protected] 50 ÜXÀ\, t Ü|t�X «ø |¬�ð[email protected] /dev/hda5Èä. |¬�ðXt ä´ U¥�ð[email protected] Å�

  • B.5.1 Intel x86Ð� �ðXX0

    DOS �Ä° ñ äx ´�´�@ pDHt õtX0| ÐXàät Ð ´�´�� ¬©X �ðXXl0| p�t| ` �Ä µÈä. $X�\ø¨D µXì [email protected] NTFS� �ðXX l0| p�Xä� µÈä. $X �\ø¨X �ðXX0 èÄÐ� �Ù �ðXD Ý\ äL tø t¬X �ðXX l0| p�XÜt )Èä.

    PCX BIOSÄ �¤l| �ðXXp � �}D aÈä. |è XX Ü|t�Ð X � �ü�ðX�ü �|¬�ðX�X ��Ð \Ä� µÈä. �\ 199498D t�X BIOSÐ �t �¥\ �ðXX �XÐÄ �}t µÈä. 8\ ´©@ ¬�¤ �ðXX0 HOWTO @ Phoenix BIOS FAQ | 8pXÜt )ÈäÌ, t èÐÐ� 0��x ´©@ 0°ä �µÈä.

    �ü�ðX�@ PC© �¤lÐ� �µ�

  • Appendix C

    ìì�À ´©ä

    C.1 ø¬ $� �| ��

    ä[email protected] Ù $X© ø¬ $� �|\ D� ÙX ��Èä. ¬©@ 4.7�Ð $�´ µÈä. t �|D Á� ¬©X$t | �X TX¸| Æ`| ` �Ä µÈä.

    Ð�| ät¼Ð ��\ \ÜX$à �

  • # ÙT` � µÈä. ��X ø¬ $� �D ä� �|ø0\ �8# � µÈä. À�/½\=� Ý

  • #### øì $�.

    d-i mirror/country string enter information manuallyd-i mirror/http/hostname string http.us.debian.orgd-i mirror/http/directory string /debiand-i mirror/suite string testingd-i mirror/http/proxy string

    ### �ðXX0.

    # ܤ\Ð H õ�t D L ø D \ � �ðX

  • d-i partman/choose_partition select \Finish partitioning and write changes to disk

    d-i partman/confirm boolean true

    #### ¸\T $X.

    # 0ø ¸ \T (x86X ½°) GRUBÈä. GRUB �àÐ LILO| ¬©X$t,# äL �X TX¸| Æ`íÜ$:#d-i grub-installer/skip boolean true

    # äLD $�tÄ H�iÈä. t� Xt ôè0Ð äx ´�´��# ÆD ½°Ð Ù

  • # ä´� T8À| \ÜXÀ JµÈä.base-config base-config/intro note

    # ÈÀÉ T8À| \ÜXÀ JµÈä.base-config base-config/login note

    # �¤��t �¬| $XXÀÌ base-config� ] äLÐ �\ ÜXÀ# J X$t.#base-config base-config/start-display-manager boolean false

    # | $X �\ø¨ �@ $X\ ´©D ��äÐ ôàiÈä. 0ø�@# ôàXÀ ôà| Xt ´¤ �¸è´| Ît ¬©X À � 4ÇD# CDÐ ìh` À °�Xp ÄÀt )Èä.#popularity-contest popularity-contest/participate boolean false

    #### ÜÄ � Ü�� $�.

    # XÜè´ ÜÄ| UTC\ `À ì| p�iÈä.base-config tzconfig/gmt boolean true# 0� ømÐ ä x $X �\ø¨Ð À�X$t, äL À�|# t©t Ü��| $�` � µÈä.# (�¥\ �@: Eastern, Central, Mountain, Pacific, Alaska, Hawaii,# Aleutian, Arizona East-Indiana, Indiana-Starke, Michigan, Samoa, other)base-config tzconfig/choose_country_zone/US select Eastern# äÐ ät.# (�¥\ �@: Newfoundland, Atlantic, Eastern, Central,# East-Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan, Mountain, Pacific, Yukon, other)base-config tzconfig/choose_country_zone/CA select Eastern# �|ÈÐ ät. (�¥\ �@: East, West, Acre, DeNoronha, other)base-config tzconfig/choose_country_zone/BR select East# Î@ m�ä@ Ü��� X�РƵÈä. tì\ m�ä �Ð X|# $X �\ø¨Ð À�X$t, äLD t©t� \� Ü��| ÝXíÜ$.base-config tzconfig/choose_country_zone_single boolean true# äL È[email protected] �Ð� Ð\ m�ä txÐ Ü��� ìì �x m�Ð# tùX Èä. Ü�� �X X [email protected] "other"| ø¬ $�` �# µÈä.#base-config tzconfig/choose_country_zone_multiple select

    #### � $�.

    # è¸ ôà�D ø¬ $�X$t, t �|Ð T8| ø�\ �Èä.# äx ¬t L � ÆÄ] üXXíÜ$!#passwd passwd/root-password password r00tme#passwd passwd/root-password-again password r00tme

    # |� ¬© Ä�D ÌäÀ Jà �´�$t.#passwd passwd/make-user boolean false

    # ø DÈt, ¬© tü \øxD ø¬ $�` � µÈä.#passwd passwd/user-fullname string Debian User#passwd passwd/username string debian# ø¬à ôà�Èä. üXXíÜ$!#passwd passwd/user-password password insecure#passwd passwd/user-password-again password insecure

    #### APT $�.

    # äL È[email protected] Pø èÄÐ� ¸ìø| $X` L ´¤ ¤| ¬©` À

    87

  • # À�iÈä. �¥\ �@ cdrom, http, ftp, filesystem, edit source list# by handÈä.base-config apt-setup/uri_type select http

    # ftp http| ¬©\ät, m�@ øìÐ �\ È8D X )Èä.base-config apt-setup/country select enter information manuallybase-config apt-setup/hostname string http.us.debian.orgbase-config apt-setup/directory string /debian# øì| X àx äLÐ H¥Èä.base-config apt-setup/another boolean false

    # [email protected] contrib �¸è´| $XiÈä.#base-config apt-setup/non-free boolean true#base-config apt-setup/contrib boolean true

    # ôH Åpt¸| ¬©iÈä.base-config apt-setup/security-updates boolean true

    #### ¸ìø Ý.

    # ¬©` �

  • # ¨È0 Ù ÉD X µÈä.xserver-xfree86 xserver-xfree86/autodetect_monitor boolean true# LCD �¤��t|t äL �X ü�D Æ`íÜ$.#xserver-xfree86 xserver-xfree86/config/monitor/lcd boolean true# XX ¨È0 $�@ 8 �À )t µÈä. ä[email protected] "medium"

  • hda «ø IDE ì¸ È¤0Ð ì° IDE XÜ�¤l / CD-ROM

    hdb «ø IDE ì¸ ¬�t�Ð ì° IDE XÜ�¤l / CD-ROM

    hdc Pø IDE ì¸ È¤0Ð ì° IDE XÜ�¤l / CD-ROM

    hdd Pø IDE ì¸ ¬�t�Ð ì° IDE XÜ�¤l / CD-ROM

    hda1 «ø IDE XÜ�¤lX «ø �ðX

    hdd15 $ø IDE XÜ�¤lX ôä/ø �ðX

    sda SCSI ID� �¥ ®@ (0) SCSI XÜ�¤l

    sdb SCSI ID� äL 8x (1) SCSI XÜ�¤l

    sdc SCSI ID� äL 8x (2) SCSI XÜ�¤l

    sda1 «ø SCSI XÜ�¤lX «ø �ðX

    sdd10 $ø SCSI XÜ�¤lX ôø �ðX

    sr0 SCSI ID� �¥ ®@ SCSI CD-ROM

    sr1 SCSI ID� äL 8x (2) SCSI CD-ROM

    ttyS0 ܬ¼ ì¸ 0, MS-DOSÐ� COM1

    ttyS1 ܬ¼ ì¸ 1, MS-DOSÐ� COM2

    psaux PS/2 È°¤ ¥X

    gpmdata �¥ ¥X, GPM (È°¤) p¬Ð� ( pt0X ¬ gpm => /dev/gpmdata -> /dev/mouse => X/dev/ttyS0 (¬

  • # /etc/init.d/gpm restart

    X| äÜ ÜXÀ JàÄ �¸è´�

  • È\ $X\ pDH ܤ\D DÐ Þ $�X0Ì Xt, 0t ¬© pt0| (ät) .¨@�Ä ¬©` � µÈä. �ä´Àt Æ� Debian GNU/Linux $XÈä. � t )@ ìì�À � ø�´ $X ø�´ät ÙXÀ J XÜè´Ð $XX l´ )t0Ä iÈä.

    C.4.1 ÜX0

    0t ɤ© �ðX Äl| t©t XÜ Ü|t�| D\ �\ äÜ �ðXXíÜ$. \\ �|ܤ\ \ �| ¤Q

  • # mkdir work# cd work

    �t�¬ �|@ pDH Dtt�Ð µÈä. (D¤MÐÐ Þ �|D ÝXÄ] XíÜ$) ¸ìø Ð� debootstrap .deb �|D ´$�

  • # file system mount point type options dump pass/dev/XXX / ext3 defaults 0 1/dev/XXX /boot ext3 ro,nosuid,nodev 0 2

    /dev/XXX none swap sw 0 0proc /proc proc defaults 0 0

    /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy auto noauto,rw,sync,user,exec 0 0/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro,user,exec 0 0

    /dev/XXX /tmp ext3 rw,nosuid,nodev 0 2/dev/XXX /var ext3 rw,nosuid,nodev 0 2/dev/XXX /usr ext3 rw,nodev 0 2/dev/XXX /home ext3 rw,nosuid,nodev 0 2

    mount -a 9

  • ####################################################################### /etc/network/interfaces -- configuration file for ifup(8), ifdown(8)# See the interfaces(5) manpage for information on what options are# available.######################################################################

    # We always want the loopback interface.#auto loiface lo inet loopback

    # To use dhcp:## auto eth0# iface eth0 inet dhcp

    # An example static IP setup: (broadcast and gateway are optional)## auto eth0# iface eth0 inet static# address 192.168.0.42# network 192.168.0.0# netmask 255.255.255.0# broadcast 192.168.0.255# gateway 192.168.0.1

    $�@ search 9D /etc/resolv.confÐ %XíÜ$:

    # editor /etc/resolv.conf

    �è\ /etc/resolv.conf:

    search hqdom.local\000nameserver 10.1.1.36nameserver 192.168.9.100

    ܤ\X 8¤¸tD %XíÜ$ (2�Ð� 63�LÀ):

    # echo DebianHostName > /etc/hostname

    $¸Ìl tÜ� ìì�|t, /etc/modulesÐ Ü|ø´ ¨È tD �ù\ ��\ Þ°| iÈä.ø| �` L � tÜ� XÄ\ tù x0t¤ t

  • C.4.4.5 \�| $�X0

    �´� DÌ ¸´| ¬©` L \�|D $�X$t \�| ÀÐ ¸ìø| $XXà ø ¸ìø| $�XíÜ$:

    # apt-get install locales# dpkg-reconfigure locales

    üX: t 9D äX0 �Ð ( base-config èÄ �Ð) apt| $�t| iÈä. ASCII [email protected] latin1txX 8KD ¬©X \�|D ¬©X$t ø �Ð �ù\ ÀíT HOWTO| 8àXíÜ$.

    C.4.5 ä� $X

    t ܤ\D �X$t, ¬�¤ ä�ü ¸\T� ´| iÈä. äL 9

  • C.5 Ñ, |x IP| (PLIP) t©t Debian GNU/Linux $XX0

    t @ tT7 tÜ� ÆÀÌ, t¸èt ôè0Ð � ¨ �t�D (� �°0 �t�t|àÄiÈä) µt ð°�´ ôè0Ð Debian GNU/LinuxD $XX )D $iÈä. t¸ètôè0 pDH øì� $¸ÌlÐ (�| ä´ x07Ð) ð°�´ ´| iÈä.

    t ]X ��Ð� �T� ð°D µt (ppp0) x07Ð ð°� t¸è[email protected] PLIP ð°D iÈä. À ôè[email protected] ¤ ôè0 ��Ð IP ü\ 192.168.0.1 � 192.168.0.2| ¬©iÈä. (t¸ètÐ ð°�´ $¸ÌlÐ� t IP ü ¬©XÀ ÐD| iÈä.)

    $X\ ܤ\

  • 2. $¸Ìl XÜè´ É

    • Ì} ÀÐ $¸Ìl tÜ�

  • Appendix D

    �¬

    D.1 8� �ô

    t $� ¬ÀX pDH $X �\ø¨D �t Ìä´L

  • X�µÈä. ¹�\ x¸ Michael Schmitz (m68k support), Frank Neumann (Amiga install manualXÐ�), Arto Astala, EricDelaunay/Ben Collins (SPARC information), Tapio Lehtonen, and Stéphane Bortzmeyer� Ìä´| X�µÈä.°¬ USBT¨¬ ¤ñÐ� �X Ð �\ ©\ �ô| ô´� Pascal Le BailÐ �¬iÈä.Miroslav Kue SargeX pDH $XX Î@ È\´ 0¥1Ð �\ 8�T| tüȵÈä.

    �¥ ©\ M¤¸@ �ô Jim MinthaX $¸Ìl �Ð �\ HOWTO8�(URLÆL)@ theDebian FAQ , the Linux/m68k FAQ , the Linux for SPARC Processors FAQ , theLinux/Alpha FAQ Ð� �¬` � µÈä.t m¬©�¥Xà Î@ �ô ¤X TxLt� x� D� µÈä.

    t Tt¼Ð� ©¬� $XÐ �\ ¥C.4�@ Karsten M.Self� �D �Ä 8�Ð� �8TµÈä.

    t Tt¼Ð� PLIP 0� $XÐ �\ ¥C.5�@ Gilles Lamiralt ô PLIP-Install-HOWTO Ð 0�iÈä.

    D.4 Á\ \Ü

    ¨à Á\ ��X Á\ X °Èä.

    100

    http://www.informatik.uni-oldenburg.de/~amigo/debian_inst.htmlhttp://www.debian.org/doc/FAQ/http://www.linux-m68k.org/faq/faq.htmlhttp://www.linux-m68k.org/faq/faq.htmlhttp://www.ultralinux.org/faq.htmlhttp://linux.iol.unh.edu/linux/alpha/faq/http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/PLIP-Install-HOWTO.htmlhttp://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/PLIP-Install-HOWTO.html

  • Appendix E

    GNU General Public License

    Version 2, June 1991

    Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc. � 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA02110-1301, USA.

    Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing itis not allowed.

    E.1 Preamble

    The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast,the gnu General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software� to make sure the software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to most of theFree Software Foundation’s software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. (Someother Free Software Foundation software is covered by the gnu Library General Public License instead.)You can apply it to your programs, too.

    When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses aredesigned to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for thisservice if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change thesoftware or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.

    To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or toask you to surrender the rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if youdistribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.

    For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give therecipients all the rights that you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the sourcecode. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.

    We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and (2) offer you this license whichgives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the software.

    Also, for each author’s protection and ours, we want to make certain that everyone understands thatthere is no warranty for this free software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, wewant its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so that any problems introduced byothers will not reflect on the original authors’ reputations.

    Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We wish to avoid the danger thatredistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the programproprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone’s freeuse or not licensed at all.

    The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.

    101

  • E.2 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE

    TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION

    • This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyrightholder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The ”Program”,below, refers to any such program or work, and a ”work based on the Program” means either theProgram or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Programor a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language.(Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in the term ”modification”.) Each licenseeis addressed as ”you”.

    Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; theyare outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from theProgram is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent ofhaving been made by running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Programdoes.

    • You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program’s source code as you receive it, in anymedium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriatecopyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this Licenseand to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of thisLicense along with the Program.

    You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offerwarranty protection in exchange for a fee.

    • You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work basedon the Program, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

    a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the filesand the date of any change.

    b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or isderived from the Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all thirdparties under the terms of this License.

    c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you must cause it,when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display anannouncement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (orelse, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under theseconditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (Exception: if the Programitself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on theProgram is not required to print an announcement.)

    These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work arenot derived from the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate worksin themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distributethem as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is awork based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License,whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every partregardless of who wrote it.

    Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work writtenentirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative orcollective works based on the Program.

    In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (orwith a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bringthe other work under the scope of this License.

    • You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2) in object codeor executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the

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  • following:

    a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which must bedistributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for softwareinterchange; or,

    b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any third party, for acharge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,

    c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding sourcecode. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received theprogram in object code or executable form with such an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)

    The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. Foran executable work, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plusany associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installationof the executable. However, as a special exception, the source code distributed need not includeanything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components(compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs, unless thatcomponent itself accompanies the executable.

    If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place,then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distributionof the source code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with theobject code.

    • You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided underthis License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is void,and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have receivedcopies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as suchparties remain in full compliance.

    • You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing elsegrants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actionsare prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing theProgram (or any work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to doso, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Program or worksbased on it.

    • Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient au-tomatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Programsubject to these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recip-ients’ exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance bythird parties to this License.

    • If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason(not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement orotherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditionsof this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under thisLicense and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute theProgram at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of theProgram by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way youcould satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.

    If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance,the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply inother circumstances.

    It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property rightclaims or to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting theintegrity of the free software distribution system, which is implemented by public license practices.Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through

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  • that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor todecide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannotimpose that choice.

    This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the restof this License.

    • If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or bycopyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License mayadd an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distributionis permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporatesthe limitation as if written in the body of this License.

    • The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General PublicLicense from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, butmay differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. Each version is given a distinguishingversion number. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and”any later version”, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that versionor of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specifya version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free SoftwareFoundation.

    • If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution con-ditions are different, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrightedby the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make ex-ceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of allderivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.

    NO WARRANTY

    • because the program is licensed free of charge, there is no warranty for the program, to the extentpermitted by applicable law. except when otherwise stated in writing the copyright holders and/orother parties provide the program ”as is” without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied,including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particularpurpose. the entire risk as to the quality and performance of the program is with you. should theprogram prove defective, you assume the cost of all necessary servicing, repair or correction.

    • in no event unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing will any copyright holder, orany other party who may modify and/or redistribute the program as permitted above, be liableto you for damages, including any general, special, incidental or consequential damages arising outof the use or inability to use the program (including but not limited to loss of data or data beingrendered inaccurate or losses sustained by you or third parties or a failure of the program to operatewith any other programs), even if such holder or other party has been advised of the possibility ofsuch damages.

    END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

    E.3 How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

    If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the bestway to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under theseterms.

    To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of eachsource file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the”copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

    one line to give the program’s name and a brief idea of what it does.

    Copyright (C) year name of author

    This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the gnu GeneralPublic License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your

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  • option) any later version.

    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but without any warranty; without eventhe implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. See the gnu General PublicLicense for more details.

    You should have received a copy of the gnu General Public License along with this program; if not, writeto the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.

    Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

    If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

    Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author

    Gnomovision comes with absolutely no warranty; for details type ‘show w’.

    This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type ‘show c’ fordetails.

    The hypothetical commands ‘show w’ and ‘show c’ should show the appropriate parts of the GeneralPublic License. Of course, the commands you use may be called something other than ‘show w’ and‘show c’; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items � whatever suits your program.

    You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a”copyright disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:

    Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program ‘Gnomovision’ (which makes passesat compilers) written by James Hacker.

    signature of Ty Coon, 1 April 1989

    Ty Coon, President of Vice

    This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs.If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietaryapplications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the gnu Library General Public Licenseinstead of this License.

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    Contents1 ë“°ë¹—ìŁ‹ìŠ’ 쟤쉀 ê²…ìš— íŽŸìŸ†íŁ©ë‰‹ë‰¤.1.1 ë“°ë¹—ìŁ‹ìš´ëž•?1.2 GNU/리닖ì−¤ëž•?1.3 Debian GNU/Linuxëž•?1.4 ë“°ë¹—ìŁ‹ GNU/Hurdëž•?1.5 ë“°ë¹—ìŁ‹ êµ¬íŁŸê¸°1.6 ìš´ 문엜욟 최쉀 벗쀗욗 쌻ë−fl ë²Ł1.7 ìš´ 문엜욟 구엱1.8 문엜슒 ë‘—ìł•ìš— 주쉤 붗욕 쌸쀜ëfi€ì§• íŽŸìŸ†íŁ©ë‰‹ë‰¤.1.9 쀕잂궄과 샄ífl—í−¸ìł¨ìŒ´ 뚼운엀ì−¤ìŠ’ ë„•íŁŸìŠ¬

    2 쉜ì−¤í–œ ìıfl구쇬íŁ�2.1 ì§•ìł’íŁŸë−fl íŁŸëfiœìł¨ìŒ´2.1.1 ì§•ìł’íŁŸë−fl ìŁ—í‡¤í–“ì³’2.1.2 CPU, ë©fl울 ë³´ëfiœ, ë¹—ëflfl쟤 ì§•ìł’2.1.2.1 CPU2.1.2.2 잖출뀥 ë²—ì−¤

    2.1.3 그랟ífl½ ì¹´ëfiœ2.1.4 ë–¸í−¸ë¶†2.1.5 뉤줂 ífl—로엸엜

    2.2 엤칟 미ëflfl쌴2.2.1 ífl„ë¡œífl¼2.2.2 CD-ROM/DVD-ROM2.2.3 íŁŸëfiœëflflì−¤í†¬2.2.4 USB ë©fl모리2.2.5 ë—¤í−¸ìł„톬2.2.6 윀뉛ì−¤ 곗슴 ퟹ욕 GNU 쉜ì−¤í–œ2.2.7 ì§•ìł’íŁŸë−fl 쀕장 장칟

    2.3 주볕 장칟 ë°‘ 기텕 íŁŸëfiœìł¨ìŒ´2.4 GNU/리닖ì−¤ë¥¼ ìœ—íŁœ íŁŸëfiœìł¨ìŒ´ êµ¬ìž–íŁŸê¸°2.4.1 둖쀒쀆운거뇟 í‘’ì⁄—ë’œ íŁŸëfiœìł¨ìŒ´ ífl¼íŁŸê¸°2.4.2 Windows 쀗ìı© íŁŸëfiœìł¨ìŒ´2.4.3 강짜 ퟹ욕 ╜강셆╚ 턨리퉰 RAM

    2.5 ë©fl모리 ë°‘ ëflflì−¤í†¬ 공갗 ìıfl구쇬íŁ�2.6 ë—¤í−¸ìł„톬 슰결 íŁŸëfiœìł¨ìŒ´

    3 Debian GNU/Linux ì—¤ì¹ŸíŁŸê¸° 쀗슒3.1 엤칟 ê³¼ì€ŁìšŸ ê°œìıfl3.2 기존 듰운헰를 ë°±ìŠ–íŁŸì‰�쉜쟤!3.3 íŁ—ìıflíŁœ ì€Łë³´3.3.1 문엜3.3.1.1 엤칟 매뛴쌼3.3.1.2 íŁŸëfiœìł¨ìŒ´ 문엜

    3.3.2 íŁŸëfiœìł¨ìŒ´ ì€Łë³´ê°• ìž‹ë−fl ê³³ 찾기3.3.3 íŁŸëfiœìł¨ìŒ´ ퟸ펟엱3.3.4 ë—¤í−¸ìł„톬 ì—¤ì€Ł

    3.4 최샄 íŁŸëfiœìł¨ìŒ´ ìıfl구쇬íŁ� 맞ì¶fl기3.5 멕퉰 붕턖 쉜ì−¤í–œìŠ’ì—œ 미리 í„„í‰°ì–ŸíŁŸê¸°3.5.1 DOS뇟 Windows슒엜 í„„í‰°ì–ŸíŁŸê¸°3.5.1.1 DOS뇟 Win-32뇟 OS/2슒엜 ì‰œìž‚íŁ€ 룄 ë“°ìš´í—° 샒쉤슃운 뉤쉜 í„„í‰°ì–ŸíŁŸê¸°3.5.1.2 DOSìı© í„„í‰°ì–ŸíŁŸê¸°

    3.6 ì—¤ì¹ŸíŁŸê¸° 쀗슒 íŁŸëfiœìł¨ìŒ´ ë°‘ ìı´ìŸ† 체쀜 ì—¤ì€Ł3.6.1 BIOS ì—¤ì€Ł ë©flë›´ ëfi¤ìŒ´ê°•ê¸°3.6.2 붕턖 장칟 엀텚3.6.2.1 IDE ì»´ífi¨í—°ìšŸ 붕턖 시엜 ë°fl꾸기3.6.2.2 SCSI ì»´ífi¨í—°ìŠ’ì—œ 붕턖 시엜 ë°fl꾸기

    3.6.3 기텕 BIOS ì—¤ì€Ł3.6.3.1 CD-ROM ì—¤ì€Ł3.6.3.2 Extended쎕 Expanded Memory3.6.3.3 Virus Protection3.6.3.4 Shadow RAM3.6.3.5 Memory Hole3.6.3.6 Advanced Power Management

    3.6.4 ì£¼ìšŸíŁ´ìŁ¼ íŁ€ íŁŸëfiœìł¨ìŒ´ ìš´ì−‹3.6.4.1 Turbo ì−¤ìœ—칟3.6.4.2 Cyrix CPU ë°‘ ífl„ë¡œífl¼ ëflflì−¤í†¬ 쟤륟3.6.4.3 주볕 장칟 íŁŸëfiœìł¨ìŒ´ ì—¤ì€Ł3.6.4.4 USB BIOS ì§•ìł’ ë°‘ 퇤보ëfiœ3.6.4.5 64 MB RAM ìš´ì…†

    4 쉜ì−¤í–œ 엤칟 미ëflfl쌴 쌻기4.1 공쉚 Debian GNU/Linux CD-ROM ì—¸í−¸4.2 ë“°ë¹—ìŁ‹ 미ë�¬ìŠ’ì—œ í„„ìš¼ ë‡´ë€¤ë°łê¸°4.2.1 엤칟 운미징를 찾욗 윗칟

    4.3 ëflflì−¤í†¬ 운미징슒엜 ífl„ë¡œífl¼ 맄ëfi¤ê¸°4.3.1 리닖ì−¤ë‡Ÿ UNIX 쉜ì−¤í–œìŠ’ì—œ ëflflì−¤í†¬ 운미징 ìfi°ê¸°4.3.2 DOS, Windows, OS/2슒엜 ëflflì−¤í†¬ 운미징 ìfi°ê¸°

    4.4 USB ë©fl모리 ì−¤í‰± 붕턖슒 íŁ—ìıflíŁœ í„„ìš¼ ì¤•ë¹—íŁŸê¸°4.4.1 í„„ìš¼ ë³µì‡¬íŁŸê¸° â•fl 웬ìı´ ë°©ë²Ł4.4.2 í„„ìš¼ ë³µì‡¬íŁŸê¸° â•fl ìœ€ìŠ°íŁœ ë°©ë²Ł4.4.2.1 Intel x86슒엜 USB ì−¤í‰± í„„í‰°ì–ŸíŁŸê¸°4.4.2.2 ISo 운미징 ì¶flê°•íŁŸê¸°4.4.2.3 USB ì−¤í‰± ë¶•í„–íŁŸê¸°

    4.5 íŁŸëfiœ ëflflì−¤í†¬ 붕턖슒 íŁ—ìıflíŁœ í„„ìš¼ ì¤•ë¹—íŁŸê¸°4.5.1 LILO ퟹ욕 GRUBìš— ìš´ìı©íŁœ íŁŸëfiœ ëflflì−¤í†¬ 엤칟 ífl—로그램 붕턖

    4.6 TFTP ë—¤í−¸ìł„톬 붕턖슒 íŁ—ìıflíŁœ í„„ìš¼ ì¤•ë¹—íŁŸê¸°4.6.1 BOOTP 엜벗 ì¤•ë¹—íŁŸê¸°4.6.2 DHCP 엜벗 ì—¤ì€ŁíŁŸê¸°4.6.2.1 DHCP ì—¤ì€ŁìŠ’ì—œ PXE ë¶•í„–íŁŸê²„ 맄ëfi¤ê¸°

    4.6.3 TFTP Server 쇬ìı©íŁŸê¸°4.6.4 TFTP 운미징를 ì€†ë‰¹íŁœ 윗칟슒 쟮기기

    4.7 ìž’ë‘Ž 엤칟4.7.1 ë“°ë¹—ìŁ‹ 엤칟 ífl—로그램욗 ìš´ìı©íŁœ ìž’ë‘Ž 엤칟

    5 엤칟 쉜ì−¤í–œ ë¶•í„–íŁŸê¸°5.1 Intel x86슒엜 엤칟 ífl—로그램 ë¶•í„–íŁŸê¸°5.1.1 CD-ROM슒엜 ë¶•í„–íŁŸê¸°5.1.2 LILO ퟹ욕 GRUBìš— 쇬ìı©íŁ´ 리닖ì−¤ ë¶•í„–íŁŸê¸°5.1.3 USB ë©fl모리 ì−¤í‰±ìŠ’ì—œ ë¶•í„–íŁŸê¸°5.1.4 ífl„ë¡œífl¼ìŠ’ì—œ ë¶•í„–íŁŸê¸°5.1.5 TFTPë¡œ ë¶•í„–íŁŸê¸°5.1.5.1 PXE를 ì§•ìł’íŁŸë−fl NIC ퟹ욕 맋ë“flë³´ëfiœ5.1.5.2 ë—¤í−¸ìł„톬 붕í−¸ë¡¬ìš´ ëfi¤ìŒ´ ìž‹ë−fl NIC5.1.5.3 Etherboot

    5.1.6 붕턖 ífl—롬ífl—í−¸

    5.2 붕턖 턄뚼미헰5.2.1 ë“°ë¹—ìŁ‹ 엤칟 ífl—로그램 턄뚼미헰

    5.3 엤칟 ê³¼ì€ŁìšŸ 문쀜 íŁ´ê²°5.3.1 ífl„ë¡œífl¼ ëflflì−¤í†¬ 쉀뢰엱5.3.2 붕턖 ì—¤ì€Ł5.3.3 잒주 ë°œì…šíŁŸë−fl Intel x86 엤칟 문쀜5.3.3.1 PCMCIA ì—¤ì€Ł 뉨곗슒엜 쉜ì−¤í–œ 멋춤5.3.3.2 USB 모ëfi‹ìš— 욽쌴ëfi¤ìš´ë‰¤ê°• 쉜ì−¤í–œ 멋춤

    5.3.4 커뗒 쉜잂 ë©fl엸징 íŁ´ì—šíŁŸê¸°5.3.5 ë²—ê·¸ ë³´ê³€5.3.6 엤칟 ë³´ê³€ 쀜출

    6 ë“°ë¹—ìŁ‹ 엤칟 ífl—로그램 쇬ìı©íŁŸê¸°6.1 엤칟 ífl—로그램운 ë‘Žìž‚íŁŸë−fl 방쉚6.2 구엱 ìıfl샄 샄개6.3 ê°† 구엱 ìıfl샄 쇬ìı©íŁŸê¸°6.3.1 ë“°ë¹—ìŁ‹ 엤칟 ífl—로그램 ë°‘ íŁŸëfiœìł¨ìŒ´ ì—¤ì€Ł ì¤•ë¹—íŁŸê¸°6.3.1.1 쇬ìı© ê°•ë−¥ ë©fl모리 겕쇬6.3.1.2 쌸쌴 엀텚6.3.1.3 êµ�ê°• 엀텚6.3.1.4 퇤보ëfiœ ì—€í…šíŁŸê¸°6.3.1.5 ë“°ë¹—ìŁ‹ 엤칟 ífl—로그램 ISO 운미징 찾기6.3.1.6 ë—¤í−¸ìł„톬 ì—¤ì€ŁíŁŸê¸°

    6.3.2 í„„í‰°ì–ŸíŁŸê¸° ë°‘ 맋ìı´í−¸ 윗칟 엀텚6.3.2.1 ëflflì−¤í†¬ í„„í‰°ì–ŸíŁŸê¸°6.3.2.2 떼리 볼륨 괕리잒 (LVM) ì—¤ì€ŁíŁŸê¸°6.3.2.3 멕퉰ëflflì−¤í†¬ 장칟 ì—¤ì€ŁíŁŸê¸° (샄ífl—í−¸ìł¨ìŒ´ RAID)

    6.3.3 벀운ì−¤ 쉜ì−¤í–œ ì—¤ì¹ŸíŁŸê¸°6.3.3.1 벀운ì−¤ 쉜ì−¤í–œ 엤칟

    6.3.4 쉜ì−¤í–œìš— 붕턖 ê°•ë−¥íŁŸê²„ 맄ëfi¤ê¸°6.3.4.1 뉤른 ìı´ìŸ† 체쀜 찾기6.3.4.2 íŁŸëfiœ ëflflì−¤í†¬ìŠ’ GRUB 붕í−¸ë¡œë“fl 엤칟6.3.4.3 íŁŸëfiœ ëflflì−¤í†¬ìŠ’ LILO 붕í−¸ë¡œë“fl �