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    1NC Shell

    A. New Chinese leadership creates an opportunity to improve unstable Sino-

    U.S. relationsAgence Frane Presse 13(Retrieved May 24, 2013, from Lexis/Nexis)

    Christopher Johnson, a former CIA analyst on China, said that Xi -- thanks in part to his elite background --

    consolidated powermore quicklythan many US policymakers had anticipated. "Xi Jinping ismuch more relaxed

    and cosmopolitan andmore likely to go off the talking points. Hu Jintao was very roboticand oftentimesseemed to be talking more to the Chinese in the room than to his counterpart," said Johnson, now at the Center for Strategic and

    International Studies. The Obama administration has already invested time in cultivating a

    relationship with Xi, and Vice President Joe Biden spent an unusually long five days in China in

    2011 to mingle with him.

    B. The US & China will clash over economic ties to Latin America.Schimia 12(Emanuele, journalist and geopolitical analyst, 2012, Retrieved May 30, 2013, from

    The United States keeps on looking to Asia, but it had better watch its back, where China's penetration in Latin America is

    intensifying. Meanwhile, region's countries are taking their countermeasures to minimize the Sino-Western dispute, using

    multilateral regional and sub-regional institutions as the first line of defense. During her latest roadshow in Asia, US Secretary of

    State Hillary Clinton shifted the debate over the much-trumpeted United States "pivot" towards

    the Asian-Pacific region from military confrontation to trade competition with China. Over the

    past decade, trade assertiveness has turned out to be the master key to another, often

    underestimated, geopolitical pivot: that of Beijing to Latin America- Washington's historical and

    geographical backyard. China's drive for enhancing its vested positions across Central and South

    America is not without pitfalls, much as those the US faces in its efforts to protect its strategicinterests in East Asia. China is Latin America's third-largest trading partner, immediately after

    the United States and European Union (EU). Beijing's commercial exchanges with Latin-American countries wereworth more than US$241 billion in 2011, according to data released by the Chinese Trade Ministry in April. Of US$153 billion from

    foreign direct investments which Latin-American and Caribbean nations attracted in 2011, $8 billion came from China (down $7

    billion compared with 2010), the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) reported in May. That puts

    Beijing well behind the EU, US, Latin America and Caribbean and even Japan. The EU, top investor in this region, has funneled an

    average of $30 billion a year into Latin America since 2002. Recent trade and economic tensions between the

    United States, Canada and Europe on one side, and some Latin-American countries on the

    other seem to be playing into Beijing's hands. In May, the EU filed a complaint with the World Trade Organization(WTO) against Argentina's import barriers, after it had already challenged Buenos Aires's decision in April to nationalize YPF, the

    local energy company which until then was controlled by Spain's oil and gas major Repsol. Left-leaning governments such as

    Venezuela, Bolivia and Ecuador have made numerous nationalizations over the past years, which have affected mostly North

    American and European companies.

    C. Relations are not stable- increased tensions risk crisis escalation.

    Dingli 13(Shen, professor and associate dean at Fudan Universitys Institute of InternationalStudies, interviewed by Emeritus Professor Joseph Camilleri, La Trobe University, May 21, 2013,

    Retrieved from May 24, 2013, from


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    SD: Current Sino-US relations can be described as an interesting mix of necessary cooperation

    and increasing competition, with some controlled confrontation. So long as it views itself as a City upon a

    hill, the United States will remain fundamentally opposed to the emergence of a multipolar system. In particular the United

    States will resist anyone, China included, from sharing its leadership. America may accept certainpartnerships as part of a US-centric world, but not as part of a multipolar one. America may eventually agree to engage with China in

    the development of a multipolar order, but out of necessity, not out of choice. There are many examples of

    expanding China-US cooperation: collaborating against North Koreas nuclear and missile development; jointly

    stabilizing the world financial market; and, dispatching large numbers of students reciprocally to learn from each other etc. But

    areas of suspicion are increasing even faster when it comes to perceptions of each others strategic intentions:

    why the US has moved its pivot to Asia, and how China perceives its interests in the South China Sea, to name a few. The US is

    wondering whether Beijing, especially during Chinas military modernization, will follow through on its

    international commitment, especially to the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of Sea (UNCLOS)which allows Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei and Indonesia respective exclusive economic zones (EEZs), thereby denying

    Chinas claim of the right to tap maritime economic resources in some of these exclusive areas. China, for its part, is deeply

    concerned about the US shift to a pro-Japan position in the China-Japan sovereignty dispute over the Diaoyu Islands. Such deep

    mutual suspicion and subsequent hedging, if poorly managed, could lead to serious crisis

    escalation .

    D. Strong US-Sino relations cause political reform and peace in China as well as

    prevent several scenarios for global war, disease, terrorism and prolif

    Gross 13(Donald senior associate at the Pacific Forum of the Center for Strategic andInternational Studies (CSIS), a former State Department official, and author of The China

    Fallacy), Mar. 19, 2013, Retrieved May 24, 2013 from


    Better relations with China would support wide-reaching political reform and liberalization.

    They would undercut the repressive internal forces that legitimize one-party authoritarian

    ruleas a means of protecting the country against foreign military threats, particularly from the United States. In the field ofnational security, through an ongoing process of mutual threat reduction, the United States

    can ensure that China is a future partner and not a dangerto the interests of America and its allies. The

    greatest benefit is that the U.S. would avoid a military conflict for the foreseeable future with a country

    it now considers a major potential adversary. Other critical security benefits to the United States and its

    allies include: Significantly reducing China'scurrent and potential military threat to Taiwan,

    thus securing Taiwan's democracy; Utilizing China's considerable influence with North Korea to curb

    Pyongyang's nuclear weapon and missile development programs; Increasing security cooperationwith

    China on both regional and global issues, allowing the United States to leverage Chinese

    capabilities formeeting common transnational threats such as climate change, energy insecurity, pandemic

    disease, cyberterrorism and nuclear proliferation; Curtailing cyberattacks by the Chinese

    military on U.S.-based targets as well as enforcing stringent measures against private individuals and groups in China thatengage in cyber-hacking; Having China submit its maritime disputesin the South and East China Seas to an

    independent international judicial bodyto preventfestering conflicts over uninhabited islands and energy

    resources from escalating to armed conflict; and Reducing the scope, scale, and tempo of China's

    military modernization programs by discrediting the rationale for conducting a focused anti-

    U.S. buildup, especially since the country has so many other pressing material needs. In his second term, President Obama

    should seize the opportunity created by the emergence of China's new leadership to stabilize

    U.S.-China relations -- bypursuing a diplomatic strategythat minimizes conflict, achieves

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    greater mutually beneficial Sino-American cooperation, and significantly expands trade and

    investment between the two countries. This approach would enable the United States to maintain an effectivemilitary presence in the Asia Pacific in coming years, despite defense budget cuts, while also rebalancing economic and political

    resources to the region to ensure stability and mutual prosperity.

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    2NC/1NR Extensions

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    Relations High Now

    US-Sino relations are improving after successful summit

    Roberts and Goldberg 6/9(Dan and Suzanne, Dan is the Guardian's Washington Bureau

    chief, covering politics and US national affairs, Suzanne is is the US environment correspondentof the Guardian and is based in Washington DC. She has won several awards for her work in the

    Middle East, and in 2003 covered the US invasion of Iraq from Baghdad. She is author of Madam

    President, about Hillary Clinton's historic run for White House. US-China summit ends with

    accord on all but cyber-espionage For the Guardian UK, June 9, 2013.

    Meeting in the baking heat of a Palm Springs country estate, the two leaders broke with protocol for two days of informal talks

    aimed at creating a new spirit of co-operation between the world's two economic superpowers.The common ground they found,

    however, was not quite what the White House expected as talks on cyber-espionage were overshadowed by revelations of

    Washington's own cyberwarfare strategy.Both leaders discussed the issue for several hours, according to aides, but the best that

    the US was able to boast afterwards was that Beijing was no longer unaware of the depth of feeling on the subject."It's quite

    obvious now that the Chinese senior leadership understand clearly the importance of this issue to the United States," said Obama's

    national security adviser, Tom Donilon.Washington stressed that it wished only to discuss "cyber-enabled economic theft"the

    theft of intellectual by entities based in China of property and other kinds of property in the public and private realmrather than

    broader espionage and surveillance activity, but the nuance may have been lost. Xi chastised US media for failing to report equally

    on attacks made against China.The two leaders appeared to make progressin other areas, seemingly

    aware they faced increasingly shared challenges and responsibilities. Under the climate deal,

    the US and Chinathe world's two biggest emitters of greenhouse gasessaid they would work with other

    countries to reducethe fastest growing source of emissions, the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) used in air conditioners andrefrigerators.HFCs are an extremely potent class of greenhouse gasup to 1,000 times more so than carbon dioxidebut they

    clear out of the atmosphere relatively quickly, in about 10 or 15 years.That short lifespan means cutting HFCs can deliver almost

    immediate results, avoiding up to six times as much warming by 2050 as reductions in carbon dioxide.The White House said on its

    website that the deal reached on Saturday could potentially reduce the equivalent of some 90 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide by 2050,

    or about a year's worth of current greenhouse gas emissions."Left unabated, HFC emissions growth could grow to nearly 20% of

    carbon dioxide emissions by 2050, a serious climate mitigation concern," the White House said.The potential significance

    of the co-operation between Washington and Beijing on climate issues could be even broader.

    China has in the past argued that cutting emissions would compromise its economic growth, while the US has typically hascountered that it would not act on climate change until China did.In the case of HFCs, there was already momentum building

    towards such a deal before Obama and Xi's meeting. More than 100 countries have shown support for using the Montreal protocol,

    an agreement reached in 1987 to phase out substances that were depleting the ozone layer, to act on reducing HFCs.Donilon said

    the Chinese also reaffirmed their anxiety about nuclear proliferation in North Korea and pledged

    to work together to encourage regional talks."I think what you have essentially underway here is a shared

    threat analysis and a shared analysis as to what the implications and impact would be of

    North Korea pursuing a nuclear weapons programme," said Donilon.Detailed quotes were less forthcomingfrom the Chinese delegation. Xi's senior foreign policy adviser, Yang Jiechi, s imply said the two leaders "talked about co-operation

    and did not shy away from differences".The bonhomie was also punctured by a last-minute decision from the Chinese delegation

    not to stay with Obama at the historic Sunnylands estate, favouring a downtown hotelreputedly to minimise the risk of electronic


    Recent California summit meeting proves Obama and Xi are pursuing a more

    collaborative partnership

    The Japan Times 13(Getting U.S.-China relations right June 15, 2013


    At first glance, there is a great deal of convergence between what Chinese President XiJinping wanted andwhat U.S. President

    Barack Obamasought at their summit last week in California. Dig a little deeper, however, and the differences were every bit as

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    important as those similarities.While both men wish to put the U.S.-China relationship on a stable path ,

    there is great difference in the way that each seeks to accomplish that important objective. How they reconcilethat

    divergence will have a profound impact on East Asian relations in general, and the U.S.-China

    relationship in particular.As they seek that common ground, Japan must not feel threatened. Positive relations betweenWashington and Beijing do not come at Tokyos expense. Presidents Obama and Xi met in Sunnylands, California, last week to set a

    tone to the relationship. Historically, such meetings were formal and stolid affairs. Tightly scripted events, there was rarely a real

    exchange of views between the two leaders. They read talking points, hit their marks and demonstrated to the world and theirrespective publics that the two governments can do business together. The one exception to this pattern was the summit

    between U.S. President George W. Bush and Chinese President Jiang Zemin at Mr. Bushs Crawford, Texas, ranch at the end of Mr .

    Jiangs tenure. Mr. Xis readiness to try this sort of summitry early inhis term suggests he is a different type of leader and has

    already mustered power over the Chinese bureaucracy to allow him to engage the U.S. president in such a manner.Plainly,

    however, the traditional relationship has limits. Issues of common concern are expanding, and while the two leaderships are

    increasingly engaged, the two sides more frequently talk at each other rather than with each other.This meeting, with its

    informality and its emphasis on acquainting the two men with each other, is designed to

    change the context in which America and China engage each other.A personal relationship is nosubstitute for the hard slog of diplomacy, but it can be a cornerstone of constructive bilateral relations.At this point, differences

    between the two sides rear their heads. Both governments have studied history. They know that rising

    powers have traditionallybeen revisionist powers, challenging the existing political orderand the reigning

    hegemon. Both sides also know that unless carefully tended, such transitions are messy and

    often violent. The United States and China, and every other country in Asia, have too much tolose to allow history to repeat itself.Beijing is calling for a new type of great power relations. What that means inspecific terms is not clear, but inferring from Chinese behavior and commentary leads to the conclusion that it seeks to be the

    leading power in Asia and wants Washington, and other regional governments, to respect or defer to Chinese wishes. If Beijing

    wants a sphere of influence, then it will be disappointed.For its part, the U.S. wants Beijing to take a higher profile role in the

    region and the world, and it sees those responsibilities as perfectly compatible with traditional relations among nations. China is

    merely one great power among several. Indeed, the appropriateness of the very label great power depends on a countrys

    willingness to assume those responsibilities, whether the issue in question is cybersecurity, climate change, North Korea, Irans

    nuclear ambitions or setting rules for resolutions of disputes.In the past, the U.S. has called on China to be a

    responsible stakeholder, which is the rubric it used during the second Bush administration to encourage Beijing to be

    part of the solutionrather than part of the problem.Thus far, Chinas preferred response is to assert that itremains a developing country whose resources, like its influence, are limited, and that they are both best used dealing with Chinas

    internal problems. That is a convenient explanation, and one that fits Chinese preferences, but it is the very antithesis of a great

    power.In short, the U.S. seeks a new relationship with China. China wants a new type of

    relations, one that distinguishes Beijings relations with Washington from its ties with other countries. China believes it is a greatpower by definition.The U.S. counters that such status is a function of behavior, not a countrys mere attributes. In the U.S.

    formulation, with power comes responsibility. Given the stakes, the entire world needs the U.S. and China

    to succeed in creating a working relationship.There is a temptation, however, among Japanese, to see a workingU.S.-China relationship coming at the expense of the special relationship that Japan has with the U.S. Nothing could be further from

    the truth. Japan and the U.S. are allies and are bound by 60 years of close cooperation, the sharing of values, interests and concerns.

    We are true partners.A good U.S.-China relationship is good for Japan, and a better understanding of the two countries interests

    and concerns should reduce tension between them and with Japan. We need to have more trust in our partner and ally, just as we

    ask it to trust in us when we engage governments and the U.S. is not at the table.

    Now is the perfect time to revitalize US-Sino relations.

    Pei 12(Minxin, professor of government at Claremont McKenna College and a non-residentsenior fellow at the German Marshall Fund of the United States, NEW YORK TIMES, Nov. 13,

    2012, Retrieved May 24, 2013, from

    THE political calendars of the United States and China follow different cycles, but once every

    two decades Chinas leadership transition occurs simultaneously with the U.S. presidential

    election. So now, with President Obamas re-election and Xi Jinpings anointing as chief of the

    Chinese Communist Party, both countries have an opportunity to take stock of the bilateral


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    China and the U.S. are worker toward a more cooperative relationship now

    Agence France Presse 13(May 24, 2013, Retrieved May 24, 2013, from Lexis/Nexis)

    China and the United States are hopingfor a new chance to set the course for smoother relations

    through a secluded desert summit asthe Asian power's leader Xi Jinping projects a more confident style. Xi and

    Barack Obama will meet June 7-8 at the tony Sunnylands resort in Rancho Mirage, California, their first encounter since the Chinesepresident took power and three months ahead of their first scheduled run-in at the Group of 20 summit in Russia. The talks

    come amid rows between the world's two largest economies over issues that include China's

    alleged cyber-hacking, but the two sides expect the encounter to be less about specifics and

    more about setting a tone.

    The U.S. and Chinas economic ties promise improving relations


    2013, US FED NEWS, Retrieved May 24, 2013, from Lexis/Nexis)

    But both countries must also recognize the major roles they both play in the region, he said. "The Pacific is big enough for all of us,"

    Locklear told the group, borrowing a quote from both former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton and Chinese President XiJinping. Nowhere is this more evident than in the United States' and China's economic relationship- one that

    Locklear said draws them togetherand positively affects the entire region. The admiral noted other

    promising developmentsthat are solidifying this foundation: China's growing participation in the

    international community, its commitment to a denuclearized Korean Peninsula and its efforts

    to address HIV/AIDS and pandemic diseases, among them. Meanwhile, China is demonstrating "a real appetite to

    deepen the military-to-military dialogue and build on those areas on which we converge," Locklear said. The goal, he said, is to

    continually improve the channels of communication and to demonstrate practical cooperation

    on issues that matter to both sides.

    US & China are overcoming past conflicts and developing a productive


    Ide 13(William, staff writer, VOICE OF AMERICA NEWS, May 24, 2013, Retrieved May 24, 2013,from Lexis/Nexis)

    Xie Tao, a professor at Beijing Foreign Studies University, said that while mutual suspicion is running high now in

    the relationship, the upcoming meeting could be an opportunity to rebuild trust. "I think Mr. Xi,

    unlike Hu Jintao, he is a leader of some kind of personality," Xie remarked. "He has his own style. And I think that Americanmedia may like that style and President Obama may like Mr. Xi's personality. It's important that the two build up a personal

    rapport." The location of the meeting also could help, he added. "I think that maybe staying away from that official

    place, Washington D.C., and getting away from this major media, the White House

    correspondents, might be a good thing," Xie said.

    We are entering a new historical period of strong relations between the U.S.and China

    Shanghai Daily 13(SHANGHAI DAILY BENCHMARK, May 23, 2013, Retrieved May 24, 2013,from Lexis/Nexis)

    "President Obama and President Xi will hold in-depth discussions on a wide range of bilateral,

    regional and global issues," the White House said in a statement. "They will review progress and

    challenges in US-China relations over the past four years and discuss ways to enhance

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    cooperation, while constructively managing our differences, in the years ahead," it said. Chinese foreign

    ministry spokesman Hong Lei said that China was willing to work with the United States to strengthen

    dialogue and cooperation in relations, which he said were "at a new historical period." "Ofcourse, some differences exist between China and the United States, which require proper and active management by both sides,"

    Hong said "This year, Sino-US relations have got off to a good start and are facing an important opportunity for development."

    US-Sino relations are in an important new phase.Xinhua News Agency 13(XINHUA NEWS AGENCY, Apr. 16, 2013, BBC Monitoring AsiaPacific - Political, Retrieved May 24, 2013, from Lexis/Nexis)

    Chinese President Xi Jinpingon Monday [15 April] met with Chinese and U.S. governors, calling for deeper

    regional cooperation between the two countries. Relations between China and the United States

    are currently at "an important phase that connects the past and the future ," Xi told the governorsattending the second China-U.S. governors' forum. Xi recalled his latest telephone discussion with U.S. President Barack Obama,

    saying they agreed on the direction for building a bilateral cooperative partnership and

    developing a new type of relations between big powers.

    Obama and Xis summit is a crucial step forward in US-Sino relations.

    China Daily European Edition 13(CHINA DAILY EUROPEAN EDITION, May 22, 2013,Retrieved May 24, 2013, from Lexis/Nexis)

    The meeting between US President Barack and Chinese President will be a seminal event in Sino-US relations

    as well as in the relations of the world, former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger saidon Tuesday. "I am very encouragedby the announcement that the two presidents will meet, and especially by the agenda that has been announced," Kissinger said in a

    speech delivered at a forum entitled "US-China Economic Relations in the Next Decade", sponsored by the China-

    United States Exchange Foundation and held in the headquarters of Asia Society. It "specifically emphasizes the long

    range relationship, the review of recent interactions, and the definition of long range goals,

    which could make that meeting a seminal event in Sino-US relations, and also in the relations

    of the world," said the 89-year-old Kissinger.

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    Now Key Time For Relations

    Now is a key time to improve U.S. relations with China

    Gross 13(Donald, senior associate at the Pacific Forum of the Center for Strategic and

    International Studies (CSIS), a former State Department official, and author of The China Fallacy,Mar. 19, 2013, Retrieved May 24, 2013 from


    In his second term, President Barack Obama has a historic opportunity to improve U.S.

    relations with China. Incoming President Xi Jinping will welcome Americanovertures and

    policies that assist China in addressing its seriousdomestic problemsresulting from rapid

    economic development -- among them environmental degradation, severe economic

    inequality and a weak social safety net.

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    Competing over Latin America Now

    Both China and the U.S. are in economic competition over Latin America

    Mallen 13(Patricia Rey, staff writer, INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS TIMES, May 30, 2013,

    Retrieved May 30, 2013 from

    The battle is on. The world's two largest economic superpowers, China and the United States, are making moves

    on Latin America, hoping to gain more geopolitical influencein a booming region. U.S. Vice President

    Joseph Biden arrived in Rio de Janeiro on Wednesday, while Chinese President Xi Jinping just

    landed in the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago and is following closely in Bidens steps. Bidens visit toBrazil marks the end of a six-day swing through the region, which included stops in Colombia and Trinidad and Tobago. Xis trip to

    Trinidad, Costa Rica and Mexico is the first since the formal transition of power ended in China in March. These parallel journeys

    from theworlds top powers to Latin Americaemphasize how the regions vast natural resources and steady

    economic growth are making it an increasingly attractive trading partner. China's designs on Latin

    Americahave long been apparent, with imports to the Asian giant surging from $3.9 billion in 2000 to

    $86 billion in 2011, as calculated by the Inter-American Development Bank. Now, China seeks to start buying massiveamounts of soy beans, copper and iron ore from Latin nations, reports the South China Morning Post. The U.S., on the other

    hand, which has had deep involvement in many Latin American nations for the past two centuries, has nonetheless been less

    than consistent in its recent trade policies, said Boston University economist Kevin Gallagher, who has writtenabout China's incursions in the region. The onus is on the U.S. to come up with a more flexible, attractive offer, but thats not so

    easy because it doesnt have the deep pockets like it used to, he told Bloomberg. During his visit to Colombia, Biden

    signed a two-year free trade agreement between the countries, calling it just the beginning.

    The VP said, at the end of a particularly tense discussion about trade in Trinidad on Tuesday, that the U.S. is deeply

    invested in the region, and wants to expand that investment with more agreements. Our goal is not simply growth, butgrowth that reaches everyone, he added. In Rio de Janeiro, Biden met with President Dilma Rousseff and invited her to a meeting

    in Washington to finalize a strategic accord. Biden mentioned being particularly interested in oil and energy companies like state-

    owned Petroleo Brasilero, better known as Petrobras (NYSE: PBR), reported Brazilian newspaper O Globo. Biden mentioned that

    trade with Brazil could be increased by 400 percent from the current $100 billion, if trade between the two largest Western

    Hemisphere nations included biofuels and aviation. Meanwhile, Chinas blossoming relationships with theregion evince a shift in its strategy; indeed, in the past Beijing deferred to U.S. economic

    interests in Latin America, due to geographic proximity, even referring to the region as

    Washingtons backyard. But now, in a globalized world, China seems to view the entire

    planet as its own "backyard." You dont hear that anymore from Xis team, said Evan Ellis, professor at the NationalDefense University in Washington, D.C.

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    China Pursuing Latin America Now

    China wants to increase its economic ties with Latin America

    Leiteritz 13(Ralf J. PhD, profesor asociado de las facultades de Ciencia Politica, Gobierno, y

    Relaciones Internacionales, Universidaddel Rosario, Bogot, Colombia, REVISTA COLOMBIAINTERNACIONAL, Jan. 1, 2012, Retrieved Apr. 23, 2013, from LEXIS/NEXIS)

    China pursues a pragmatic course when it comes tothe selection of strategic allies in the developing

    worldthat is similar to the approach it follows developing "win-win" economic cooperation agreements. Allies are not selected onthe basis of political characteristics such as regime type or respect for human rights. As a result, the current polarization between

    radical left, social- democratic, and right-wing governments in Latin America is of little importance to China when it comes to the

    question of whether to engage with them or not. In turn, countries with diverse political and economic

    backgrounds such as Peru, Mexico and Chileon the one hand, and Cuba, Bolivia, and Venezuelaon the

    other have received similar treatment from China. The important factor is the willingness to

    establish economic relations and the search for common, mutually beneficial interests.

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    US competition with China in Latin America will hurt relations.

    Kelly 9(Jason, pundit, Dec. 22, 2009, Retrieved May 30, 2013, from Lexis/Nexis)

    The interests of the US and China are further apart than ever before because you have

    essentially a declining superpower the United States and you have a rising superpower China,

    and the current superpower the US will obviously try to contain the rise of China, andChina

    will want to have more say in global affairs and you can see their expansion everywhere in

    Latin America, in the Middle East even in the Indian Ocean, in East Africa and so forth. So that

    will lead to tensions.

    The plan worsens already existing tensions between the US & China over Latin


    Scimia 13(Emanuele, journalist and geopolitical analyst, 2012, Retrieved May 30, 2013, from

    The Pacific Allianceperhaps best epitomizes the complexity of the geostrategic game that pits

    China against the United States in Central and South America: thisis yet another sub-regional

    bloc, which Chile, Peru, Mexico and Colombia inaugurated in June, and which accounts for 35%

    of the Latin America's gross domestic product (GDP) and 50% of the overall Latin-American


    China will view the plan as containment, worsening relations.

    Chase 11(Michael S., The Jamestown Foundation, CHINA BRIEF Volume: 11 Issue: 18, Sept. 30,2011, Retrieved May 30, 2013, from


    No matter whatstrategic assurances the United States provides, some in China are concerned

    the United States is becoming increasingly uneasy about Chinas emergence as a great power.

    Specifically, despite Washingtons rhetorical emphasis on the importance of a stable and constructive U.S. -China relationship, they

    are deeply concerned the United States ultimately willattempt to delay or prevent Chinas emergence as a

    great power because it sees a stronger China as a threat to its continued preeminence. Some even fear

    Washington really intends to contain China.Chinese suspicions about U.S. strategic intentions are longstanding

    [2]. What is new is that a changing strategic context and series of recent events appear to be

    intensifying Chinas concerns.

    A US-China rivalry is beginning over Latin America- the plan pushes tensionsover the brink

    Costa 13(Luis, Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service, U.S. Chins Relations:Should Washington Be Concerned Over Growing Chinese Trade in Latin America? For Policymic.

    June 11, 2013


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    On March 16, the Inter-American Development Bank announced that it would receive $2

    billion from China for an investment fund togrant loans to both public and private entities in Latin America

    and the Caribbean. The move is representative of China's increased efforts to boost investment in

    Latin America, sparking arguments that a "U.S.-China rivalry" over Latin America could be

    imminent .Indeed, China's investment in Latin America has grownwith impressive speed over the past few

    years, making it the fastest-growing investor in the region. In fact, the PRC has already overtaken the U.S. as

    Brazil's largest trading partner, and total trade between Latin America and China has been growing

    faster than trade between Latin America and the United States (in 2012, the values were estimated at 8%and 6.2%, respectively). Today, according to a report released by the UN's Economic Commission for Latin America and the

    Caribbean (ECLAC), China is Latin America's third-largest trading partner, behind only the U.S. and the EU, respectively. The same

    report predicts that by 2015 China will have surpassed the EU, remaining second only to the United States. Yet how worried should

    the U.S. be over these figures? One thing to take into consideration is the fact that the U.S. still retains a comfortable lead against

    China in absolute terms: Washington exchanges $800 billion in goods and services with Latin America annually, more than three

    times the region's trade with China. Moreover, the fact that most of China's confirmed investments in Latin America target the

    extraction of natural resources raises questions about the sustainability of China's investment in the region. It means that a

    sudden change in commodity prices could have serious consequences for Chinese foreign

    direct investment into the region. Finally, according to ECLAC data, most of China's trade with Latin America has beenconcentrated in a small group of countries, namely Argentina, Brazil, and Peru. This is a key fact that must be taken into

    consideration when evaluating China's involvement in the region as a whole.

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    China is increasing trade with Venezuela now- the plan will increase already

    existing tension in the region

    Merco Press 13(South Atlantic News Agency, China/Latam trade expanded 8% in 2012 andregions deficit jumped to 6.6bn May 22, 2013


    China's trade with Venezuela, its fourth-largest trade partner in Latin America, grew by 5.7 billion last year

    to 23.7 billion. That was the largest increase in real terms.Chinese exports to Venezuela grew by 2.8 billion,also the largest growth in real terms and the second-largest increase in percentage terms (43.3%).Venezuelan exports to China

    grew by 2.9 billion to 14.4 billion, the largest increase in real terms in Latin America and the largest in percentage terms among

    China's top five trade partners. Last year was not a fluke, but cemented a growing trend in Chinese-

    Venezuelan trade. In 2010, Chinese exports to Venezuela were 3.6 billion, or three times less than last year. Venezuelanexports to China that year were 6.6 billion, or less than half of last year's levels.

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    China is focusing on Mexico- more U.S. involvement there will heighten tension

    Regenstreif 13(Gary, staff writer. The looming U.S.-China rivalry over Latin America

    Reuters. June 12, 2013

    China has particular interest in Mexico, the regions second-largest market. Beijing has been

    competing with Mexico to supply the U.S. market with manufactured goods. But China is now looking to work with

    Mexico City investing in infrastructure, mining and energy because of the expected reforms

    that would open the oil industry to foreign investment.There are obstacles ahead. One irritation thatPresident Enrique Pea Nieto shared with Xi is that though Mexico posted a trade surplus with its global partners, it ran a big deficit

    with China.China is looking for even more however. It is eager to pursue a free trade agreement with Mexico, butMexico City said last week it was too soon. Meanwhile, Mexicos trade with the United States continues to flourish and it is due to

    displace Canada as the largest U.S. trade partner by the end of the decade, according to the Dialogue.

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    China benefits for the US embargo on Cuba- lifting it will cause tension

    Nash 13(Paul, contributor for the Diplomatic Courier, How the Chinese are Helping to

    Transform Cuba, Again May 24, 2013

    China is Cubas second largest trading partnerafter Venezuela, and Cuba is Chinas largest

    trading partner in the Caribbean, with bilateral trade now standing at around $2 billion.

    Beijing wants to help Cuba push through market-oriented economic reforms, knowing from its

    own experienceover the past three decades that private sector entrepreneurial activity can stimulate foreign investment,

    build national capital and promote domestic consumption. To this end, China has granted Cuba numerous long-

    term low or interest-free loans to support development and maintain financial and social

    stability through the reform process. It has also undertaken significant technology transfers

    and entered into joint ventures in farming, light industry, and tourism.Cuba has started the reformprocess focussed on its biggest export industries. It has, for example, begun restructuring its ailing sugar industry by abolishing the

    sugar ministry and creating Azcuba, a state holding company consisting of 13 provincial sugar companies that operate 56 sugar millsand 850 sugarcane farms. Azcuba signed foreign investment agreements with companies from Brazil and Britain in 2012 to

    modernize harvesting equipment and build biomass energy plants. Cuba exports about 400,000 tonnes of sugar annually to China,

    more than half the amount it produces for domestic consumption.Chinas interest in Cuba is, of course, inseparable from the

    Caribbeans natural resources and those of Latin America more broadly. The Sino-Cuban economic fraternity, from

    Beijings viewpoint, is largely pragmatic rather than idealistic. Beijing has demonstrated that it will conductbusiness with left-leaning governments like Venezuela and Ecuador as readily as with right-leaning governments like Chile and

    Colombia. The Sino-Cuban partnership may represent a lost opportunity for the United States inpromoting liberal democracy in the Western Hemisphere. But it may also represent a path to normalized relations if China can help

    Cubas economy reform such that it, like Vietnams, no longer justifies the continuation of a decades -old U.S. trade embargo on the

    basis that Cubas economy is dominated or controlled by international communism.

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    Relations Still Unstable

    Maintaining the status quo is tough in US-Sino relations.

    Pei 13(Minxin, professor of government at Claremont McKenna College and a non-resident

    senior fellow at the German Marshall Fund of the United States, NEW YORK TIMES, Nov. 13,2012, Retrieved May 24, 2013, from


    However, maintaining a fragile status quo is becoming increasingly difficult. Several trends

    changes inrelative powerin Chinas favor, the one-sided focus on the military aspect of Americas

    Asia pivot, escalating territorial disputes that could drag in the United States and Chinas

    military modernization are exacerbating mutual distrust. Xi and his colleagues need to initiate a policyreset to signal to the second Obama administration that Beijing seeks to put ties on a more solid footing.

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    Tensions Spiral Out of Control

    Tensions between the US and China set the stage for major confrontations in

    Latin America.

    Hilton 13(Isabel, formerly Latin America editor of The Independent newspaper andis editor of, CHINA IN LATIN AMERICA: HEGEMONIC CHALLENGE?, Feb.

    2013, Retrieved Apr. 23, 2013, from


    Chinas presence in Latin America is unlikely to diminish and will continue to affect its regional

    partnersfor the foreseeable future. Although this undoubtedly entails a loss of U.S. influence in the region, both China and theU.S. have so far sought cooperation rather than confrontation. In the context of the Obama administrations pivot to Asia,

    however, and the latent, long-term strategic competition between China and the United States, there is potential for

    increasing competition for influence in the future. An escalation of tensions between China

    and U.S. allies in the South China or East China Sea could prompt China to raise retaliatorytensions in the U.S. backyard. At that point, the traditional Latin American allies of the U.S. could face some

    uncomfortable choices.

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    Economic Ties are Key

    Economic engagement is key to relations

    Thai News Service 13(THAI NEWS SERVICE, May 24, 2013, Retrieved May 24, 2013, from


    While addressing the same function, Chinese Ambassador to the United StatesCui Tiankai said

    economic relationship has always been a "major pillar" of bilateral ties and should play an

    even greater role in building a new-type of bilateral relationship. Both countries should

    deepen their economic engagement and identify new areas of cooperation, as well as new

    areas of convergence of interests, including clean energy, climate change and infrastructure


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    Loss of Chinese Soft Power in Latin America = Increase in Hard


    If Chinese soft power suffers, its hard power will increase, heightening tensions

    in the regionWade 13(Robert H, staff writer, ECONOMIC & POLITICAL WEEKLY, Mar. 9, 2013, RetrievedApr. 24, 2013, from LEXIS/NEXIS)

    In a civilised world both parties to the Diaoyu/Senkaku islands dispute would agree to submit their claims to the International Court

    of Justice; but neither side is willing to consider such a move. There is no more dangerous(leading to irrationality)

    expression of a concern with reputation than the desire to revenge a humiliation - a desire

    abundantly shared on both sides of the China-Japan sea. Meanwhile, wisdom on the Chinese side lies in

    recognising the truth of Joseph Nye's point, "Unless China is able to attract allies by successfully developing

    its 'soft power', the rise in its 'hard military' and economic power is likely to frighten its

    neighbours, who will coalesce to balance its power" (Nye 2013: 9).

    Unless Chinas soft power grows, its hard power will dominate, cause conflict,

    and prevent cooperation on key international problems

    Nye 13(Joseph S. Nye, Jr., professor at the Harvard Kennedy School and a former Pentagonofficial, THE INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, Jan. 28, 2013, Retrieved Apr. 24, 2013, from


    Asiais not a monolith, and its internal balance of power should be the key to our strategy. Japan, India,Vietnam and other countries do not want to be dominated by China, and thus welcome an American presence in the region.

    Unless China is able to attract allies by successfully developing its ''soft power,'' the rise in its

    ''hard'' military and economic power is likely to frighten its neighbors, who will coalesce to

    balance its power. A significant American military and economic presence helps to maintain the Asian balance of power andshape an environment that provides incentives for China to cooperate. After the 2008-9 financial crisis, some Chinese mistakenly

    believed that America was in permanent decline and that this presented new opportunities. A result was that China worsened its

    relations with Japan, India, South Korea, Vietnam and the Philippines - a misstep that confirmed that ''only China can contain

    China.''But America's rebalancing toward Asia should not be aggressive. We should heed

    Kennan's warning against overmilitarization and ensure that China doesn't feel encircled or

    endangered. The world's two largest economies have much to gain from cooperation on

    fighting climate change, pandemics, cyberterrorism and nuclear proliferation.

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    Impact Magnifiers

    Economic conflicts between the U.S. and China magnify every skirmish- the

    impacts will be intensified

    Ikenson 13(Dan, Forbes Contributor, Jan. 29, 2013, Retrieved May 24, 2013 from


    That appears to be no longer the case. Although the massive economic relationshipwhich reached a record half trillion dollars of

    trade and investment flows in 2012is still mutually beneficial, the future of U.S.-China relations based on

    developments over the most recent six years appears more problematic.Today, it seems, most

    bilateral economic frictions are magnified through the prism of those geopolitical and

    philosophical differences, making controversies seem larger and more intractable.

    2. The US-China relationship is the most important relationship of the 21st century.

    Dan Ikenson, (Forbes Contributor), Jan. 29, 2013, Retrieved May 24, 2013 from


    The claim that the U.S.-China relationship will be the 21st centurys most important has become

    a clich repeated at policy gatherings in Washington and Beijing. It also happens to be the truth.

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    Laundry List

    Strong US-China relations solve a laundry list of world crises.

    Thai News Service 13(THAI NEWS SERVICE, May 24, 2013, Retrieved May 24, 2013, from


    The two countrieshave different cultures and are at different stages of development, one being the largest

    developed nation and the other being the largest developing nation in the world. Each is of substantial economic size,

    and can contribute to global economic activitiesin different ways, said Tung, founding chairman of the China-

    United States Exchange Foundation, a non- profit organization. Both countries want to establish a pattern of

    secure, high- quality and sustainable growth and employment for their people. Working

    together, the two countries can do more to contribute towards global economic recovery and

    financial stability, he said. Both countries can collaborate to solvea broad set of global challenges in fields

    such as energy security, food sufficiency, environmental protection, climate change, nuclear

    weapons proliferation and the efforts to fight terrorism, said Tung, who served as the first chief executive ofthe Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR).

    US-China cooperation can solves piracy, terrorism, prolif and disease

    DOD American Forces Press Service 13(The U.S. Department of Defense's AmericanForces Press Service, May 22, 2013, US Fed News, Retrieved May 24, 2013, from Lexis/Nexis)

    Gen. Fang Fenghu, China's top military officer, identified counterterrorism, antipiracy,

    humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, logistics and military medicine as potential areas

    of cooperationduring a visit to Beijing by Army Gen. Martin E. Dempsey, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Looking to the

    future, Locklear said, it's vital that both China and the United States recognize their responsibilities

    as regional and global leaders. "We must move beyond our individual differences to bring consensus to issues that

    threaten regional stability and future prosperity," he said. That includes partnering with other nations to

    address regional security challenges such as piracy, terrorism, proliferation and pandemicdisease.

    US-Sino relations solve Korea, Iran, energy security, and climate change

    Campbell 13(Kurt, chairman and chief executive of The Asia Group and on the board of theCenter for a New American Security, Apr. 22, 2013, Retrieved May 24, 2013, from


    Currently, theres probably more discussion about where and how the two countries should talk rather than what they will talk

    about. Indeed, there is general agreement along corridors of power in Washington that several

    critical issuesincluding North Korea, Iran, macroeconomic policy, market access, cyber

    issues, energy security and climate changerequire high-level attention from both sides. Someof the most interesting decisions, however, are about the appropriate mechanisms for conducting dialogue on these very topics.

    Currently, the US and China have some of the most engaged and intricate diplomatic mechanisms

    of modern times.

    US-Sino cooperation solves nuclear proliferation and climate change.

    Gross 13(Donald, senior associate at the Pacific Forum of the Center for Strategic andInternational Studies (CSIS), a former State Department official, and author of The China

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    Fallacy), Mar. 19, 2013, Retrieved May 24, 2013 from


    Secretary of State John Kerry has emphasized the importance of U.S.-China cooperation. As Chairman of

    the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he argued convincingly: "...the simple fact is that we need China, and

    China needs us. We have to get this relationship right. After all, we are talking about our connection to one-sixth of humanity.

    The most serious problems we face today, from nuclear proliferation to climate change, can't

    be solved alone. And, economically, our futures are deeply intertwined and will remain so."

    US-Sino relations solve terrorism, proliferation, and natural disasters.

    China Business News 12(CHINA BUSINESS NEWS, Sept. 20, 2012, Retrieved Apr. 24, 2013,from LEXIS/NEXIS)

    The future security and prosperity of the US will be linked to Asia more than any other place in the world,

    but this is a region threatened by terrorism, nuclear proliferation, piracy and natural disasters,

    he said. Strong China-US relations are vitalfor the region, said Panetta. He called for Washington and Beijing to lookbeyond disagreements to areas where both share common concern and can work together. "We cannot let those disagreements

    and challenges blind us to the great opportunities that exist," he told the military academy. "If we work together andcooperate together, we can solve problems together."

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    Peace in Asia

    US-Sino cooperation key to peace and prosperity in Asia

    DOD American Forces Press Service 13(The U.S. Department of Defense's American

    Forces Press Service, May 22, 2013, US Fed News, Retrieved May 24, 2013, from Lexis/Nexis)

    The United States and China, by increasing their dialogue and engagement, can build a foundation of trust

    while fostering regional security and prosperity,the top U.S. commander in the region said yesterday. "While

    competition between the United States and China is inevitable, conflict is not,"Navy Adm. Samuel J.Locklear III, commander of U.S. Pacific Command, told members of the National Committee for U.S. China Relations in New York.

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    Global Economy

    US-Sino relations would boost the global economy

    Gross 13(Donald, senior associate at the Pacific Forum of the Center for Strategic and

    International Studies (CSIS), a former State Department official, and author of The China Fallacy,Mar. 19, 2013, Retrieved May 24, 2013 from


    The best way toovercome the "China threat" and advance U.S. interests in East Asia is by

    achieving a stable peace with China through the diplomatic resolution of outstanding

    economic and security conflicts between the two countries. By successfully negotiatinga

    bilateral U.S.-China free trade agreement and including China in the regional free trade area of

    the Asia Pacific known as the Trans-Pacific Partnership, the U.S. would unleash unprecedented

    levels of international trade and investment. These agreements will tear down trade barriers

    to American goods and services, achieve far greater transparency in China's regulatory

    practices, and enable the United States to benefit from the economic dynamism of Asia - the

    new "engine" for global growth. Improving relations between Washington and Beijing would

    also strengthen the advocates of human rights and democracy within China.

    US-China cooperation key to the global economy.

    Thai News Service 13(THAI NEWS SERVICE, May 24, 2013, Retrieved May 24, 2013, fromLexis/Nexis)

    U.S. and China can cooperate more to resolve a range of challenges to advance global

    economic recovery, said Tung Chee Hwa, vice chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political

    Consultative Conference (CPPCC), China's political advisory body, here Wednesday. Over the past few decades, the economic

    relationship between the United States and China has developed "from virtually nonexistent

    to becoming a highly interdependent and mutually beneficial" one.The United States and China are thetwo largest trading nations globally, and are each other's second largest trading partners, Tung said at a seminar on U.S.- China

    economic relations hosted by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), a Washington-based think tank.

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    Poor Relations = War

    Poor US-Sino relations cause a new cold war.

    Gross 13(Donald, senior associate at the Pacific Forum of the Center for Strategic and

    International Studies (CSIS), a former State Department official, and author of The China Fallacy,Mar. 19, 2013, Retrieved May 24, 2013 from


    Without an improvement in U.S.-China relations, however, there exists a grave risk that

    simmering conflicts between the two countries could worsen considerably and lead to a new

    Cold War. Heightened concerns in the United States, in recent days, about cyberattacks

    originating in China underscore this danger.

    Poor US-China relations risk war with China.

    Gross 13(Donald, senior associate at the Pacific Forum of the Center for Strategic andInternational Studies (CSIS), a former State Department official, and author of The China Fallacy,

    Mar. 19, 2013, Retrieved May 24, 2013 from


    The prognostications of China hawks have nevertheless increased the possibility that the

    widespread belief in a coming war with China could become a self-fulfilling prophecy. As each

    country "hedges" and ramps up preparations for war, its actions stimulate greater military

    modernization and more aggressive actions by the other side, magnifying the risk of conflict.

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    Nuclear Prolif= Nuclear War

    Nuclear Prolif increases the risk of nuclear war

    Nunn 13(Sam, Senator, CQ TRANSCRIPTIONS, Jan. 31, 2013, Retrieved Apr. 24, 2013, from


    President Reagan said it often and said it well: A nuclear war cannot be won and it must not be fought. Mr. Chairman, as this committee knows, the risk

    of a global nuclear war have thankfully, substantially -- substantially declined since the breakup of the Soviet Union. But with nine nations

    possessing nuclear weapons, with nuclear weapons usable material and knowledge spread

    across the globe, and with terrorists ready to use a nuclear weapon if they manage to buy,

    steal or make one, we face enormous risks with a -- that a nuclear weapon will be used. If

    proliferation continues in countries like Iran and North Korea, and if we do not secure nuclear materials and weapons globally, the

    odds of use will go up even more.

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    2NC/1NR Blocks

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    In the larger scheme of things, the United States and China will want to move on from the episode as

    quickly as possible. As University of Nottingham scholar Steve Tsang said: " The basic US-China relationship is

    driven by far greater forces and the overall impact will therefore be limited. "The US registeredstrong objections to the authorities in Hong Kong and China through diplomatic channels at the decision to let Snowden leave

    despite an extradition request. It "noted that such behaviour is detrimental to US-Hong Kong and US-China bilateral relations", saidWhite House National Security Council spokesman Caitlin Hayden.While the Hong Kong government insists Snowden left of his

    own will and according to the law after a provisional US arrest warrant purportedly failed to meet its judicial requirements, sources

    have said that Beijing had orchestrated the move to remove a thorny issue.The fear was that it could destabilise Sino-US ties if

    Snowden stayed on to fight a legal battle in Hong Kong that could last up to five years.This line of thinking was lent further heft by

    Democratic Party lawmaker Albert Ho, who said yesterday he had been hired as Snowden's lawyer and had relayed a message from

    a mystery intermediary telling Snowden he should leave the city. Said Ho: "I have reasons to believe that ... those who wanted him

    to leave represented Beijing authorities."China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesman Hua Chunying did not confirm this despite

    being asked thrice at a briefing.While Hong Kong enjoys autonomy under the "one country two systems" framework, Beijing has

    the final say over its defence and diplomacy. Said Hong Kong-based Chinese researcher Chen Shaobo: "It is clearly a diplomatic

    (issue), and therefore Beijing would be involved."Other analysts said the two powers are keen not to mar

    the camaraderie created after presidents Xi Jinping and Barack Obama's tete-a-tete in

    California earlier this month.Renmin University scholar Shi Yinhong said Beijing might even have informed Washingtonof Snowden's departure in advance, reflecting a tacit understanding.Certainly, politicians on both sides have largely refrained from

    criticising each other over the case of Snowden, who has alleged US hacking of China's mobile phone and computer networks.Hua

    yesterday said China has lodged a protest with the US over this, but also stressed that it was in the interests of Chinaand the US to develop ties in a "stable and healthy way".Snowden's departure is a good outcome for US-China ties in the long run, say the analysts. As Professor Anthony Saich of Harvard University said, Beijing was happy to see him leave

    Hong Kong "so that it did not produce an endless running war of words between the US, Hong Kong and China"."Also, I think the

    US is probably glad that Hong Kong will not be used for revelations about its surveillance activities in the Asia region," he added.

    Experts say the NSA scandal will only help relations

    Gross 13(Donald, senior associate at the Pacific Forum of the Center for Strategic andInternational Studies (CSIS), a former White House and State Department official, and author of

    The China Fallacy: How the U.S. Can Benefit from China's Rise and Avoid Another Cold War

    (Bloomsbury, 2013), Will the NSA Revelations Harm US-China Relations? June 18, 2013. For

    the Huffington Post.


    So the critical question arises: Will the NSA revelations-- particularly the aggressive U.S. hacking of Chinese networks and

    the concerted U.S. efforts to prepare offensive cyberattacks against potential adversaries including China -- torpedo the

    progress made at the summit?Though columnist Joe Nocera at the New York Times argues that "the existence of Prism

    will make it far more difficult to force the Chinese to get serious about stopping their own hacking," I respectfully disagree. I

    believe the NSA revelations will help the U.S. and China move forward in addressing

    cyberespionage issues and in so doing, strengthen their overall relations . Here's why.To be

    effective, the diplomatic process for reducing tensions on security issues between Washington

    and Beijing must be grounded in reality -- in truthful and factual analysis of specific threats.

    Out of shared assessments of those threats, the two countries can develop measures that willimprove their mutual security.At the summit meeting in California, this is precisely how the

    U.S. and China strengthened their cooperation for dealing with the nuclear threat from North

    Korea.The two sides moved closer to a common assessment of the dangers posed by Pyongyang's weapon programs which thenenlarged their overlapping interests and led to a pledge to work together on implementing joint security strategies.The same can

    be said for the summit agreement on hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) -- a particularly dangerous class of greenhouse gases -- where China

    embraced the U.S. view that the two countries need to cooperate more closely to mitigate the risk of global warming.No such

    agreement on the divisive issue of cyberespionage was remotely possible at the summit because the policy discussion was not

    grounded in a realistic assessment of the threat. China denied it engaged in cyber-hacking and called itself a victim of extensive

    cyberattacks. The United States portrayed China as the leading aggressor in attacking U.S. cyber networks while minimizing and

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    concealing American surveillance activities in cyberspace.In essence, both countries used misleading rhetoric to conjure up false

    images of reality in order to protect their interests in pursuing cyberespionage. But the political consequences for the United States

    were worse. The recent revelations of NSA's surveillance activities validate Beijing's view of itself as equally victimized by

    cyberattacks and demolish the one-sided U.S. portrayal of China as the preeminent aggressor in this field.

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    A2: No Link- Cyber security

    Latin America is becoming more of a source of tension in US-China relations

    than cyber security

    Valencia 6/24(Robert, New York-based political analyst and a contributing writer for GlobalVoices, US and China: The Fight for Latin America June 24, 2013 for

    During the first weekend of June, U.S. President Barack Obama andChinese President Xi

    Jinping met in California to discuss cyber espionageand territorial claims in the Pacific Rim.

    While tension on these topics has hogged the headlines, the fight for influence in another

    area could be even more importantLatin America. Other emerging markets in Africa, where

    China has an overwhelming influence due to foreign direct investment in mining and oil, also

    offer economic opportunities, but Latin America has an abundance of natural resources,

    greater purchasing power, and geographic proximity to the United States, which has long

    considered Latin America as its backyard.

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    Aff Answers

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    Relations Poor Now- Snowden

    Snowdens release represents a serious setback for US-Sino relations

    Pecquet 6/24(Julian, staff writer for The Hill, US-China relations chill over Snowden for June 24, 2013

    The White House upbraided China on Monday for allowing Edward Snowden to board a plane

    out of Hong Kong, warning the move represented a serious setback in relations. [WATCH VIDEO]

    Press secretary Jay Carney blasted China in unusually blunt termsas the administration hunted forSnowden, the leaker of National Security Agency documents who is now believed to be hiding out in Russia. Carney dismissed

    Hong Kongs legal justification for allowing Snowden to leave we do not buy the suggestion that China could

    not have taken action and said there would be consequences.The Chinese have

    emphasized the importance of building mutual trust, Carney said. And we think that they

    have dealt that effort a serious setback. If we cannot count on them to honor their legal

    extradition obligations, then there is a problem. And that is a point we are making to them very directly.The

    escalating tensions threaten to derail President Obamas careful outreach to newly elected Chinese President Xi Jinping, whic hbegan earlier this month with a summit in California.A former senior NSA official said Carneys statement reflects the strong

    sentiment that the Chinese did mess up on this.Theres no way around it. The Chinese messed up, the official

    said. This is a real screw-up on their part,and its not helpful and was not in the same vein as the recent summit inCalifornia [between Obama and Xi].This does put a chill on things after the warmth of California. Theres going to need to be some

    real heart to heart in the coming weeks and months.

    US-China relations negatively impacted by NSA incident- Clinton explains

    CBS 6/25(CBS News, Washington D.C. Clinton: China Damaged Relationship with U.S. byAllowing NSA Leaker to Flee June 25, 2013


    LOS ANGELES Hillary Rodham Clinton said Monday that China damaged its relationship with the

    U.S. by allowing National Security Agency leaker Edward Snowden to flee from Hong Kong,

    despite a U.S. request to arrest him for extradition.That kind of action is not only

    detrimental to the U.S.-China relationship but it sets a bad precedent that could unravel the

    intricate international agreements about how countries respect the laws and particularly

    the extradition treaties,the former secretary of state and possible 2016 presidential contender told an audience in Los

    Angeles.Clintons remarks echoed criticism from White House officialsthat Hong Kongs refusal

    to detain Snowden had unquestionably hurt relationsbetween the two countries. Hong Kong has a highdegree of autonomy from the rest of China, although experts believe Beijing probably orchestrated Snowdens exit in an effort to

    remove an irritant in relations with the U.S.Clinton said the former CIA employee engaged in outrageous behavior by releasing

    sensitive documents that he contends show privacy violations by an authoritarian government. Snowden is now in Russia, and the

    White House wants him sent to the U.S. to face espionage charges.

    Snowdens released damaged Sino-US relations

    Centre for Research on Globalization 6/25( US issues threats toChina, Russia over Snowden June 25, 2013


    Speaking at a news conference yesterday, White House spokesman Jay Carney bluntly declared: We are just not

    buying that this was a technical decision by a Hong Kong immigration official. This was a

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    deliberate choice by the government to release a fugitive despite a valid arrest warrant, and

    that decision unquestionably has a negative impact on the US-China relationship.It is no doubtthe case that the decision to allow Snowden to leave Hong Kong was taken at the top level in Beijing, but that reflects anger in China

    and Hong Kong over the US espionage operations. Snowden provided information to Hong Kongs South China Morning Post

    showing that the NSA had hacked into hundreds of civilian computers in Hong Kong and China since 2009, including Hong Kongs

    Internet Exchange.While the Chinese government is yet to comment on the latest US threats, the state-owned press has hit back.

    The Chinese Communist Party newspaper Peoples Daily declared that the decision to let Snowden leave Hong Kong was consistent

    with the law and entirely defensible. Referring to the NSAs huge theft of data, it called on the US to stop the hypocrisy of a thiefshouting stop thief! and to account for US intelligence agencies infiltrating Chinese computer networks.

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    Relations Poor Now- Economic Espionage

    Tensions rising now- economic espionage

    Riley 6/27(Michael, reporter for Bloomberg Business Week, Chinas Sinovel Charged by U.S.

    With Stealing Trade Secrets June 27, 2013

    Sinovel Wind Group Co. (601558), a Chinese wind-turbine company, was charged with stealing trade

    secrets from its former U.S. supplier, a case of industrial espionage that may heighten

    tensions in U.S.-China relations in the wake of the Edward Snowden affair.U.S. prosecutors securedan indictment of the company and two of its executives in federal court yesterday in Madison, Wisconsin. Also charged was Dejan

    Karabasevic, who pleaded guilty in Klagenfurt, Austria, to stealing source code for the turbine controllers made by American

    Superconductor Corp. (AMSC), his former employer. The company lost more than $1 billion in market value after the theft became

    public. The indictmentstiming may give it prominence in the U.S. intensifying dispute with

    China over economic espionage . That conflict has only been inflamed by Snowdens

    disclosures of U.S. computer-based spying, and Chinas decision to allow the ex-National

    Security Agency contractor to fly to Russia from HongKong, where he had fled.My 5-year-old understandsthat this is wrong, AMSC Chief Executive Officer Daniel McGahn said by phone. If your ideas can be stolenwithout recourse, there

    is no reason to invest in innovation, and if there is no reason to invest in innovation, there is no purpose to the American economy.

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    Caribbean is more about its economy and ensuring that it has access to markets in order to purchase raw materials and sell its

    manufactured goods. China also has a massive presence in Africa, and Xi traveled to Tanzania, South Africa and Congo shortly after

    he took office in March.

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    No Link- Cyber Security

    Cyber security is the key in US-China relations- not Latin America

    AP 6/8(The Associated Press for NPR, Cybersecurity Deemed Central To U.S.-China Relations

    June 8, 2013

    President Obama used an unusually lengthy and informaldesert summit to present Chinese

    President Xi Jingping with detailed evidence of intellectual property theft emanating from his

    country, as a top U.S. official declared Saturday that cybersecurity is now at the "center of the

    relationship" between the world's largest economies.While there were few clear policy breakthroughs oncybersecurity, U.S. officials said Obama and Xi were in broad agreement over the need for North Korea to be denuclearized. And

    both countries expressed optimism that the closer personal ties forged between the two leaders during the California summit could

    stem the mistrust between the world powers.Still, Obama's national security adviser Tom Donilon said

    resolving cybersecurity issues would be "key to the future" of the relationship.Obama told Xi

    that "if it's not addressed, if it continues to be this direct theft of United States property, that

    this was going to be very difficult problem in the economic relationship and was going to bean inhibitor to the relationship really reaching its full potential,"Donilon said during a briefing withreporters following the summit.In their own recap of the meetings, Chinese officials said Xi opposed all forms of cyberspying, but

    claimed no responsibility for attacks against the U.S."Cybersecurity should not become the root cause of

    mutual suspicion and frictions between our two countries. Rather, it should be a new bright

    spot in our cooperation," said Yang Jiechi, Xi's senior foreign policy adviser.Yang said the two leaders"blazed a new trail" away from the two nations' past differences and "talked about cooperation and did not shy away from

    differences."Obama and Xi met for about eight hours over the course of two days at the sweeping Sunnylands estate, marking a

    significant and unusual investment of time for both presidents. Their talks included a working dinner of lobster tamales, Porterhouse

    steak and cherry pie prepared by celebrity chef Bobby Flay, and a morning walk through the manicured gardens of the 200-acre

    estate on the edge of the Mojave Desert.

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    No Link- No Trade-off

    US-Latin America economic engagement does not affect Chinese-Latin

    American relations

    Mi 6/5(Li, correspondent for Xinhuanet news, Xi's trip ushers in new chapter for China-LatinAmerican relations June 5, 2013 for Xinhuanet news.

    BEIJING, June 5 (Xinhua) -- Chinese President Xi Jinping's ongoing trip to Latin America and the Caribbean has

    ushered in a new chapter in the region's fast-growing bilateral relations with China.The trip

    also proves that the two sides can be each other's opportunities in their long-term

    comprehensive cooperation.In the past decade,the development of bilateral trade testifies to the win-win cooperation

    China and its Latin American partners have vowed to seek.China is now the second largest trading partner of

    Latin America and a leading source of investment in the region . It is the largest trading partner of Brazil andChile. Free trade agreements have been signed between China and Chile, Peru as well as Costa Rica respectively.Even amidst the

    global economic downturn and the European debt crisis, bilateral trade reached 261.2 billion U.S. dollars in 2012, increasing by 8.1

    percent year-on-year. It is expected to reach 400 billion dollars in 2017.It is undeniable that China's demand for commoditiesrevived the growth engine for resource-rich Latin America in recent years. However, Latin America is not just China's raw material

    corner, nor is China Latin America's one-time bonanza.To enhance cooperation across such geographical distances is not bricolage.

    The trade structures of China and Latin American countries are highly complementary. They

    offer a wide range of cooperation opportunities which have been expanded beyond energy to

    include, among other things, finance, agriculture, infrastructure, science and technology,

    aerospace, and tourism.The economic exchange between China and Latin America has also found a balance betweentrade and investment, evolving from the trade-dominated mode at the very beginning.China's investment in Latin America has

    reached around 65 billion dollars and created much needed jobs in the region. The infrastructure projects funded by Chinese banks

    and built by Chinese contractors set good examples that China and Latin America have already been on track for comprehensive

    cooperation in the long term.Meanwhile, China and Latin America are also facing common challenges during their development.

    Rural-urban migration, sustainable development, environment protection and the widening wealth gap have been or are on the two

    sides' agenda.According to the Global Competitiveness Index 2012-2013, China and most Latin American countries are in a

    development stage of "efficiency-driven" or in a transition stage of "efficiency-driven to innovation-driven."China and Latin

    America do not simply surf the wave. They can learn from each other and help each other in the long run,making joint efforts to keep integrated into the value chain of global production.It is eye-catchingthat the high-level exchanges between China and Latin America have been more frequent since the Chinese leadership transition.

    China-Latin American relations are an integral part of the Chinese government's overall diplomatic balance.China and Latin

    America are inseparable in South-South cooperation. Both sides have exchanged views and supported each other on a variety of

    issues through world-class platforms like APEC, BRICS, G-20 summits and the newly set-up Latin America panel at the Boao Forum

    for Asia.President Xi and other Chinese leaders have noted recently that China is ready to promote the establishment of the China-

    Latin America Cooperation Forum as a better platform to deepen the comprehensive cooperative partnership between China and

    the region.Xi is the first Chinese president to visit Trinidad and Tobago and English-speaking Caribbean countries, and the second

    to visit Costa Rica. During his visits, Xi also met with leaders of several more nations in the region, including Antigua and Barbuda,

    the Bahamas, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Suriname and Jamaica.The Chinese's president's visits are sure to

    bring new momentum and turn over a new page for China-Latin American relations .Given thesignificant positions of Trinidad and Tobago, Costa Rica and Mexico in the Caribbean, Central America and Latin America, the visits

    are sure to set examples for the development of bilateral ties between China and other countries in the region.

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    No Link- Not Competing

    The U.S. and China can cooperate over Latin America

    Global Times 5/31(China, US not competing over Latin America: expert May 31, 2013

    Chinese President Xi Jinping heads to Latin America and the Caribbean on Friday, in a state visit aiming at promoting China's

    cooperation with the region.Xi's visit to Trinidad and Tobago, Costa Rica and Mexico follows his first foreign trip to Russia and three

    countries in Africa, Tanzania, South Africa and Republic of Congo, shortly after taking office in March.While Xi kicks off his visit, US

    Vice President Joe Biden is concluding his Latin America visit on the same day, as he leaves Brazil Friday. Some media reports

    described "dueling visits" by Chinese and USleaders, and said that the "competition between the world's twobiggest economies for influence in Latin America is on display."Both the US and China deny they are competing with each other.

    Chinese foreign ministry spokesperson Hong Lei said last week that the two countries can "carry out cooperation in Latin America by

    giving play to their respective advantages." Tao Wenzhao, a fellow of the Institute of American Studies at

    the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, told the Global Times thatit is a coincidence that the two leaders

    chose to visit Latin America at a similar time, and that China has no intention to challenge US influence in the area." It's not

    like in the 19th century when countries divided their sphere of influence in a certain area.

    China and the US' involvement in Latin America is not a zero-sum game," Tao said, explaining that it is

    a good thing for Latin America.Chinese and US leaders visit Latin America out of their respective

    strategic needs,Tao said. All countries need to interact and cooperate with other countries, and visits of such high-level areusually arranged long time before they starts, Tao said. China has embarked on a diplomatic drive since completing its once-in-a-

    decade leadership transition with Chinese Premier Li Keqiang also visiting India, Pakistan, Switzerland and Germany, and several

    high-level visitors to Beijing. After visiting Mexico, Xi travels to the US for his first summit with President Barack Obama on June 7 to

    8 in California.

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    Relations Resilient

    Relations with China are resilient

    Dongxiao 12Vice President of Shanghai Institutes for International Studies (Chen, 01/05, China-US Relations in 2012:Caution Ahead,

    The year of 2011 broughtmany unexpected, globally altering events. This year, non-stop crises and sea changes in the

    international arena; chaos and revolution in the Middle Eastand West Africa; catastrophic Tsunami and nuclear-leakcrisis in Fukushima; paralysis of leadership of EU confronting the evolving debt predicament in Euro-Zone; and the sudden death of

    Kim Jong-il and its unpredictable repercussions on the Korean Peninsula and Northeast Asia were just a few of the tumultuous

    events that led global economic and political instability this year. Bilateral relations between China and the US, in

    contrast have beenrelatively stable, and increasingly positive.Three driving forces have contributed to theimprovement in US-China relations in 2011: mutual commitment, multi-function mechanisms, and increasing interdependence.

    Beijing and Washington both stressed their commitment to building a cooperative partnership based on mutual respect and mutual

    benefit following a rocky year of bilateral relations in 2010. Both sides have stressed that the relationship

    between China and the United States should be cooperativeand mutually beneficial rather than zero-sum,and that the two sides should stand together in the face of difficultyand carry out cooperationon an equal footing. The mutual commitment between China and the US has been bolstered by an increasing number of bilateral

    mechanisms with policy communication, coordination, and implementation functions (C2I). 2011 has seen of the growth of C2I

    mechanisms intensify. with a number of new initiatives, including High-level Consultation on People-to-People Exchanges, the US-

    China Governors Forum, and the Strategic Security Dialogue and Asia-Pacific Affairs Consultation under the framework of Strategic

    and Economic Dialogue (S&ED). While the former two initiatives have either reflected thriving interaction in cross-cultural domains

    or tapped the huge potential of sub-national cooperation across the Pacific, the latter two mechanisms have greatly upgraded

    capacity to address difficult and sensitive military and security issues in bilateral relations n and build confidence in US-China

    relations. The 60 plusbilateral mechanisms, plus frequent exchanges of informal visitsand workshops

    between senio